The YAP and TAZ paralogs are transcriptional co-activators recruited to target sites by TEAD proteins. Here, we show that YAP and TAZ are also recruited by JUNB (a member of the AP-1 family) and STAT3, key transcription factors that mediate an epigenetic switch linking inflammation to cellular transformation. YAP and TAZ directly interact with JUNB and STAT3 via a WW domain important for transformation, and they stimulate transcriptional activation by AP-1 proteins. JUNB, STAT3, and TEAD co-localize at virtually all YAP/TAZ target sites, yet many target sites only contain individual AP-1, TEAD, or STAT3 motifs. This observation and differences in relative crosslinking efficiencies of JUNB, TEAD, and STAT3 at YAP/TAZ target sites suggest that YAP/TAZ is recruited by different forms of an AP-1/STAT3/TEAD complex depending on the recruiting motif. The different classes of YAP/TAZ target sites are associated with largely non-overlapping genes with distinct functions. A small minority of target sites are YAP- or TAZ-specific, and they are associated with different sequence motifs and gene classes from shared YAP/TAZ target sites. Genes containing either the AP-1 or TEAD class of YAP/TAZ sites are associated with poor survival of breast cancer patients with the triple-negative form of the disease.
All sequencing data were deposited on National Cancer for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). GSE166943 is the accession number for all the data, with GSE166941 being the subset for the ChIP-seq data and GSE166942 for the RNA-seq data.
YAP and TAZ are co-activators of AP-1 proteins and STAT3 during breast cellular transformationNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE166943.
Regulatory network controlling tumor-promoting inflammation in human cancers (ChIP-seq)NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE115597.
Regulatory network controlling tumor-promoting inflammation in human cancers (RNA-seq)NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE115598.
Genome-scale identification of transcription factors that mediate an inflammatory network during breast cellular transformationNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus GSE100259.
Index and biological spectrum of human DNase I hypersensitive sitesENCODE Project ENCSR752EPH.
- Kevin Struhl
- Zhiping Weng
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jessica K Tyler, Weill Cornell Medicine, United States
© 2021, He et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) methylates H3K27 to regulate development and cell fate by transcriptional silencing. Alteration of PRC2 is associated with various cancers. Here, we show that mouse Kdm1a deletion causes dramatic reduction of PRC2 proteins, whereas mouse null mutation of L3mbtl3 or Dcaf5 results in PRC2 accumulation and increased H3K27 trimethylation. The catalytic subunit of PRC2, EZH2, is methylated at lysine 20 (K20), promoting EZH2 proteolysis by L3MBTL3 and the CLR4DCAF5 ubiquitin ligase. KDM1A (LSD1) demethylates the methylated K20 to stabilize EZH2. K20 methylation is inhibited by AKT-mediated phosphorylation of serine 21 in EZH2. Mouse Ezh2K20R/K20R mutants develop hepatosplenomegaly associated with high GFI1B expression, and Ezh2K20R/K20R mutant bone marrows expand hematopoietic stem cells and downstream hematopoietic populations. Our studies reveal that EZH2 is regulated by methylation-dependent proteolysis, which is negatively controlled by AKT-mediated S21 phosphorylation to establish a methylation-phosphorylation switch to control the PRC2 activity and hematopoiesis.
Mammalian ferredoxin 1 and 2 (FDX1/2) belong to an evolutionary conserved family of iron-sulfur cluster containing proteins and act as electron shutters between ferredoxin reductase (FDXR) and numerous proteins involved in critical biological pathways. FDX1 is involved in biogenesis of steroids and bile acids, Vitamin A/D metabolism, and lipoylation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. FDX1 has been extensively characterized biochemically but its role in physiology and lipid metabolism has not been explored. In this study, we generated Fdx1-deficient mice and showed that knockout of both alleles of the Fdx1 gene led to embryonic lethality. We also showed that like Fdxr+/-+/-, Fdx1+/-+/- had a shorter life span and were prone to steatohepatitis. However, unlike Fdxr+/-+/-, Fdx1+/-+/- were not prone to spontaneous tumors. Additionally, we showed that FDX1 deficiency led to lipid droplet accumulation possibly via the ABCA1-SREBP1/2 pathway. Specifically, untargeted lipidomic analysis showed that FDX1 deficiency led to alterations in several classes of lipids, including cholesterol, triacylglycerides, acylcarnitines, ceramides, phospholipids and lysophospholipids. Taken together, our data indicate that FDX1 is essential for mammalian embryonic development and lipid homeostasis at both cellular and organismal levels.