Three-methyl cytosine (3meC) are toxic DNA lesions, blocking base pairing. Bacteria and humans, express members of the AlkB enzymes family, which directly remove 3meC. However, other organisms, including budding yeast, lack this class of enzymes. It remains an unanswered evolutionary question as to how yeast repairs 3meC, particularly in single-stranded DNA. The yeast Shu complex, a conserved homologous recombination factor, aids in preventing replication-associated mutagenesis from DNA base damaging agents such as methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). We found that MMS-treated Shu complex-deficient cells, exhibit a genome-wide increase in A:T and G:C substitutions mutations. The G:C substitutions displayed transcriptional and replicational asymmetries consistent with mutations resulting from 3meC. Ectopic expression of a human AlkB homolog in Shu-deficient yeast rescues MMS-induced growth defects and increased mutagenesis. Thus, our work identifies a novel homologous recombination-based mechanism mediated by the Shu complex for coping with alkylation adducts.
All unique mutations identified by DNA sequencing are reported in Supplemental Table 3 and all sequencing reads are reported in Supplemental Table 5. Raw sequencing reads in fastq format have been submitted to the NCBI short read archive under BioProject accession number PRJNA694993.
Raw sequencing reads in fastq formatNCBI BioProject, PRJNA694993.
- Kara A Bernstein
- Steven Roberts
- Kara A Bernstein
- Sarah R Hengel
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Andrés Aguilera, CABIMER, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
© 2021, Bonilla et al.
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