Craniofacial defects are among the most common phenotypes caused by ciliopathies, yet the developmental and molecular etiology of these defects is poorly understood. We investigated multiple mouse models of human ciliopathies (including Tctn2, Cc2d2a and Tmem231 mutants) and discovered that each displays hypotelorism, a narrowing of the midface. As early in development as the end of gastrulation, Tctn2 mutants displayed reduced activation of the Hedgehog (HH) pathway in the prechordal plate, the head organizer. This prechordal plate defect preceded a reduction of HH pathway activation and Shh expression in the adjacent neurectoderm. Concomitant with the reduction of HH pathway activity, Tctn2 mutants exhibited increased cell death in the neurectoderm and facial ectoderm, culminating in a collapse of the facial midline. Enhancing HH signaling by decreasing the gene dosage of a negative regulator of the pathway, Ptch1, decreased cell death and rescued the midface defect in both Tctn2 and Cc2d2a mutants. These results reveal that ciliary HH signaling mediates communication between the prechordal plate and the neurectoderm to provide cellular survival cues essential for development of the facial midline.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Jeremy F Reiter
- Jeremy F Reiter
- Shaun Abrams
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All mouse protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of the University of California, San Francisco (protocol AN178683).
- Danelle Devenport, Princeton University, United States
© 2021, Abrams & Reiter
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The major microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) in animal cells, the centrosome, comprises a pair of centrioles surrounded by pericentriolar material (PCM), which nucleates and anchors microtubules. Centrosome assembly depends on PCM binding to centrioles, PCM self-association and dynein-mediated PCM transport, but the self-assembly properties of PCM components in interphase cells are poorly understood. Here, we used experiments and modeling to study centriole-independent features of interphase PCM assembly. We showed that when centrioles are lost due to PLK4 depletion or inhibition, dynein-based transport and self-clustering of PCM proteins are sufficient to form a single compact MTOC, which generates a dense radial microtubule array. Interphase self-assembly of PCM components depends on γ-tubulin, pericentrin, CDK5RAP2 and ninein, but not NEDD1, CEP152 or CEP192. Formation of a compact acentriolar MTOC is inhibited by AKAP450-dependent PCM recruitment to the Golgi or by randomly organized CAMSAP2-stabilized microtubules, which keep PCM mobile and prevent its coalescence. Linking of CAMSAP2 to a minus-end-directed motor leads to the formation of an MTOC, but MTOC compaction requires cooperation with pericentrin-containing self-clustering PCM. Our data reveal that interphase PCM contains a set of components that can self-assemble into a compact structure and organize microtubules, but PCM self-organization is sensitive to motor- and microtubule-based rearrangement.
During mitosis, individual microtubules make attachments to chromosomes via a specialized protein complex called the kinetochore to faithfully segregate the chromosomes to daughter cells. Translocation of kinetochores on the lateral surface of the microtubule has been proposed to contribute to high fidelity chromosome capture and alignment at the mitotic midzone, but has been difficult to observe in vivo because of spatial and temporal constraints. To overcome these barriers, we used total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy to track the interactions between microtubules, kinetochore proteins, and other microtubule-associated proteins in lysates from metaphase-arrested Saccharomyces cerevisiae. TIRF microscopy and cryo-correlative light microscopy and electron tomography indicated that we successfully reconstituted interactions between intact kinetochores and microtubules. These kinetochores translocate on the lateral microtubule surface toward the microtubule plus end and transition to end-on attachment, whereupon microtubule depolymerization commences. The directional kinetochore movement is dependent on the highly processive kinesin-8, Kip3. We propose that Kip3 facilitates stable kinetochore attachment to microtubule plus ends through its abilities to move the kinetochore laterally on the surface of the microtubule and to regulate microtubule plus end dynamics.