Membrane protein recycling systems are essential for maintenance of the endosome-lysosome system. In yeast, retromer and Snx4 coat complexes are recruited to the endosomal surface where they recognize cargos. They sort cargo and deform the membrane into recycling tubules that bud from the endosome and target to the Golgi. Here, we reveal that the SNX-BAR protein, Mvp1, mediates an endosomal recycling pathway which is mechanistically distinct from the retromer and Snx4 pathways. Mvp1 deforms the endosomal membrane and sorts cargos containing a specific sorting motif into a membrane tubule. Subsequently, Mvp1 recruits the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1 to catalyze membrane scission and release of the recycling tubule. Similarly, SNX8, the human homolog of Mvp1, which has been also implicated in Alzheimer's disease, mediates formation of an endosomal recycling tubule. Thus, we present evidence for a novel endosomal retrieval pathway that is conserved from yeast to humans.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files
- Scott D Emr
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Suzanne R Pfeffer, Stanford University School of Medicine, United States
© 2021, Suzuki et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The interplay among different cells in a tissue is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Although disease states have been traditionally attributed to individual cell types, increasing evidence and new therapeutic options have demonstrated the primary role of multicellular functions to understand health and disease, opening new avenues to understand pathogenesis and develop new treatment strategies. We recently described the cellular composition and dynamics of the human oral mucosa; however, the spatial arrangement of cells is needed to better understand a morphologically complex tissue. Here, we link single-cell RNA sequencing, spatial transcriptomics, and high-resolution multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridisation to characterise human oral mucosa in health and oral chronic inflammatory disease. We deconvolved expression for resolution enhancement of spatial transcriptomic data and defined highly specialised epithelial and stromal compartments describing location-specific immune programs. Furthermore, we spatially mapped a rare pathogenic fibroblast population localised in a highly immunogenic region, responsible for lymphocyte recruitment through CXCL8 and CXCL10 and with a possible role in pathological angiogenesis through ALOX5AP. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive reference for the study of oral chronic disease pathogenesis.
Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prdx5) is involved in pathophysiological regulation via the stress-induced cellular response. However, its function in the bone remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Prdx5 is involved in osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation, resulting in osteoporotic phenotypes in Prdx5 knockout (Prdx5Ko) male mice. To investigate the function of Prdx5 in the bone, osteoblasts were analyzed through immunoprecipitation (IP) and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) methods, while osteoclasts were analyzed through RNA-sequencing. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) was identified as a potential binding partner of Prdx5 during osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Prdx5 acts as a negative regulator of hnRNPK-mediated osteocalcin (Bglap) expression. In addition, transcriptomic analysis revealed that in vitro differentiated osteoclasts from the bone marrow-derived macrophages of Prdx5Ko mice showed enhanced expression of several osteoclast-related genes. These findings indicate that Prdx5 might contribute to the maintenance of bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast differentiation. This study proposes a new function of Prdx5 in bone remodeling that may be used in developing therapeutic strategies for bone diseases.