Fatty acyl-AMP ligases (FAALs) channelize fatty acids towards biosynthesis of virulent lipids in mycobacteria and other pharmaceutically or ecologically important polyketides and lipopeptides in other microbes. They do so by bypassing the ubiquitous coenzyme A-dependent activation and rely on the acyl carrier protein-tethered 4'-phosphopantetheine (holo-ACP). The molecular basis of how FAALs strictly reject chemically identical and abundant acceptors like coenzyme A (CoA) and accept holo-ACP unlike other members of the ANL superfamily remains elusive. We show FAALs have plugged the promiscuous canonical CoA-binding pockets and utilize highly selective alternative binding sites. These alternative pockets can distinguish adenosine 3', 5'-bisphosphate-containing CoA from holo-ACP and thus FAALs can distinguish between CoA and holo-ACP. These exclusive features helped identify the omnipresence of FAAL-like proteins and their emergence in plants, fungi, and animals with unconventional domain organisations. The universal distribution of FAALs suggests they are parallelly evolved with FACLs for ensuring a CoA-independent activation and redirection of fatty acids towards lipidic metabolites.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for Figures 2, Figure 4, Figure supplement 5b and Figure supplement 6.
- Gajanan Shrikant Patil
- Sudipta Mondal
- Sakshi Shambhavi
- Rajan Sankaranarayanan
- Rajan Sankaranarayanan
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Frank Raushel, Texas A&M University, United States
© 2021, Patil et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Akt is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that plays a central role in metabolism and cancer. Regulation of Akt's activity involves an autoinhibitory intramolecular interaction between its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and its kinase domain that can be relieved by C-tail phosphorylation. PH domain mutant E17K Akt is a well-established oncogene. Previously, we reported that the conformation of autoinhibited Akt may be shifted by small molecule allosteric inhibitors limiting the mechanistic insights from existing X-ray structures that have relied on such compounds (Chu, Viennet, et al, 2020). Here we discover unexpectedly that a single mutation R86A Akt exhibits intensified autoinhibitory features with enhanced PH domain-kinase domain affinity. Structural and biochemical analysis uncovers the importance of a key interaction network involving Arg86, Glu17, and Tyr18 that controls Akt conformation and activity. Our studies also shed light on the molecular basis for E17K Akt activation as an oncogenic driver.
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