In humans and other holozoan organisms, the ribosomal protein eS30 is synthesized as a fusion protein with the ubiquitin-like protein FUBI. However, FUBI is not part of the mature 40S ribosomal subunit and cleaved off by an as-of-yet unidentified protease. How FUBI-eS30 processing is coordinated with 40S subunit maturation is unknown. To study the mechanism and importance of FUBI-eS30 processing, we expressed non-cleavable mutants in human cells, which affected late steps of cytoplasmic 40S maturation, including the maturation of 18S rRNA and recycling of late-acting ribosome biogenesis factors. Differential affinity purification of wild-type and non-cleavable FUBI-eS30 mutants identified the deubiquitinase USP36 as a candidate FUBI-eS30 processing enzyme. Depletion of USP36 by RNAi or CRISPRi indeed impaired FUBI-eS30 processing and moreover, purified USP36 cut FUBI-eS30 in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate the functional importance of FUBI-eS30 cleavage and identify USP36 as a novel protease involved in this process.
Source data have been provided for Figure 5.
- Ulrike Kutay
- Ulrike Kutay
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Michael Buszczak, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2021, van den Heuvel et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase DYRK2 has emerged as a critical regulator of cellular processes. We took a chemical biology approach to gain further insights into its function. We developed C17, a potent small-molecule DYRK2 inhibitor, through multiple rounds of structure-based optimization guided by several co-crystallized structures. C17 displayed an effect on DYRK2 at a single-digit nanomolar IC50 and showed outstanding selectivity for the human kinome containing 467 other human kinases. Using C17 as a chemical probe, we further performed quantitative phosphoproteomic assays and identified several novel DYRK2 targets, including eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). DYRK2 phosphorylated 4E-BP1 at multiple sites, and the combined treatment of C17 with AKT and MEK inhibitors showed synergistic 4E-BP1 phosphorylation suppression. The phosphorylation of STIM1 by DYRK2 substantially increased the interaction of STIM1 with the ORAI1 channel, and C17 impeded the store-operated calcium entry process. These studies collectively further expand our understanding of DYRK2 and provide a valuable tool to pinpoint its biological function.
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