We recently identified a missense mutation in Nucleoporin107 (Nup107; D447N) underlying XX-ovarian-dysgenesis, a rare disorder characterized by underdeveloped and dysfunctional ovaries. Modeling of the human mutation in Drosophila or specific knockdown of Nup107 in the gonadal soma resulted in ovarian-dysgenesis-like phenotypes. Transcriptomic analysis identified the somatic sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) as a target of Nup107. Establishing Dsx as a primary relevant target of Nup107, either loss or gain of Dsx in the gonadal soma is sufficient to mimic or rescue the phenotypes induced by Nup107 loss. Importantly, the aberrant phenotypes induced by compromising either Nup107 or dsx are reminiscent of BMP signaling hyperactivation. Remarkably, in this context, the metalloprotease AdamTS-A, a transcriptional target of both Dsx and Nup107, is necessary for the calibration of BMP signaling. As modulation of BMP signaling is a conserved critical determinant of soma-germline interaction, the sex and tissue specific deployment of Dsx-F by Nup107 seems crucial for the maintenance of the homeostatic balance between the germ cells and somatic gonadal cells.
All raw RNA-seq data, as well as software versions and parameters, have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE141094
Nucleoproin 107 Mediates Femae Sexual Differentiation via DoublesexNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE141094.
- David Zangen
- Offer Gerlitz
- David Zangen
- Offer Gerlitz
- Girish Deshpande
- Tgst Levi
- Tgst Levi
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Xin Chen, Johns Hopkins University, United States
- Received: July 29, 2021
- Preprint posted: August 16, 2021 (view preprint)
- Accepted: March 17, 2022
- Accepted Manuscript published: March 21, 2022 (version 1)
- Accepted Manuscript updated: March 21, 2022 (version 2)
- Accepted Manuscript updated: March 22, 2022 (version 3)
- Version of Record published: April 1, 2022 (version 4)
© 2022, Shore et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
SAS‑6 (SASS6) is essential for centriole formation in human cells and other organisms but its function in mouse is unclear. Here, we report that Sass6‑mutant mouse embryos lack centrioles, activate the mitotic surveillance cell death pathway and arrest at mid‑gestation. In contrast, SAS‑6 is not required for centriole formation in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), but is essential to maintain centriole architecture. Of note, centrioles appeared after just one day of culture of Sass6‑mutant blastocysts, from which mESCs are derived. Conversely, the number of cells with centrosomes is drastically decreased upon the exit from a mESC pluripotent state. At the mechanistic level, the activity of the master kinase in centriole formation, PLK4, associated with increased centriolar and centrosomal protein levels, endow mESCs with the robustness in using SAS‑6‑independent centriole-duplication pathways. Collectively, our data suggest a differential requirement for mouse SAS‑6 in centriole formation or integrity depending on PLK4 and centrosome composition.
The Hydra nervous system is the paradigm of a ‘simple nerve net’. Nerve cells in Hydra, as in many cnidarian polyps, are organized in a nerve net extending throughout the body column. This nerve net is required for control of spontaneous behavior: elimination of nerve cells leads to polyps that do not move and are incapable of capturing and ingesting prey (Campbell, 1976). We have re-examined the structure of the Hydra nerve net by immunostaining fixed polyps with a novel antibody that stains all nerve cells in Hydra. Confocal imaging shows that there are two distinct nerve nets, one in the ectoderm and one in the endoderm, with the unexpected absence of nerve cells in the endoderm of the tentacles. The nerve nets in the ectoderm and endoderm do not contact each other. High-resolution TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and serial block face SEM (scanning electron microscopy) show that the nerve nets consist of bundles of parallel overlapping neurites. Results from transgenic lines show that neurite bundles include different neural circuits and hence that neurites in bundles require circuit-specific recognition. Nerve cell-specific innexins indicate that gap junctions can provide this specificity. The occurrence of bundles of neurites supports a model for continuous growth and differentiation of the nerve net by lateral addition of new nerve cells to the existing net. This model was confirmed by tracking newly differentiated nerve cells.