L,D-transpeptidase function predominates in atypical 3®3 transpeptide networking of peptidoglycan (PG) layer in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prior studies of L,D-transpeptidases have identified only the catalytic site that binds to peptide moiety of the PG substrate or ß-lactam antibiotics. This insight was leveraged to develop mechanism of its activity and inhibition by ß-lactams. Here we report identification of an allosteric site at a distance of 21 Å from the catalytic site that binds the sugar moiety of PG substrates (hereafter referred to as the S-pocket). This site also binds a second ß-lactam molecule and influences binding at the catalytic site. We provide evidence that two ß-lactam molecules bind co-operatively to this enzyme, one non-covalently at the S-pocket and one covalently at the catalytic site. This dual ß-lactam binding phenomenon is previously unknown and is an observation that may offer novel approaches for the structure-based design of new drugs against M. tuberculosis./em>.
Diffraction data have been deposited in PDB under the accession code 7F71, 7F8P
- Pankaj Kumar
- Gyanu Lamichanne
- Gyanu Lamichanne
- Pankaj Kumar
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Laura Dassama, Stanford University, United States
© 2022, Ahmad et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Aldehydes, being an integral part of carbon metabolism, energy generation, and signalling pathways, are ingrained in plant physiology. Land plants have developed intricate metabolic pathways which involve production of reactive aldehydes and its detoxification to survive harsh terrestrial environments. Here, we show that physiologically produced aldehydes, i.e., formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in addition to acetaldehyde, generate adducts with aminoacyl-tRNAs, a substrate for protein synthesis. Plants are unique in possessing two distinct chiral proofreading systems, D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase1 (DTD1) and DTD2, of bacterial and archaeal origins, respectively. Extensive biochemical analysis revealed that only archaeal DTD2 can remove the stable D-aminoacyl adducts on tRNA thereby shielding archaea and plants from these system-generated aldehydes. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, we have shown that the loss of DTD2 gene renders plants susceptible to these toxic aldehydes as they generate stable alkyl modification on D-aminoacyl-tRNAs, which are recycled only by DTD2. Bioinformatic analysis identifies the expansion of aldehyde metabolising repertoire in land plant ancestors which strongly correlates with the recruitment of archaeal DTD2. Finally, we demonstrate that the overexpression of DTD2 offers better protection against aldehydes than in wild type Arabidopsis highlighting its role as a multi-aldehyde detoxifier that can be explored as a transgenic crop development strategy.
Bacterial cell surface glycoconjugates are critical for cell survival and for interactions between bacteria and their hosts. Consequently, the pathways responsible for their biosynthesis have untapped potential as therapeutic targets. The localization of many glycoconjugate biosynthesis enzymes to the membrane represents a significant challenge for expressing, purifying, and characterizing these enzymes. Here, we leverage cutting-edge detergent-free methods to stabilize, purify, and structurally characterize WbaP, a phosphoglycosyl transferase (PGT) from the Salmonella enterica (LT2) O-antigen biosynthesis. From a functional perspective, these studies establish WbaP as a homodimer, reveal the structural elements responsible for dimerization, shed light on the regulatory role of a domain of unknown function embedded within WbaP, and identify conserved structural motifs between PGTs and functionally unrelated UDP-sugar dehydratases. From a technological perspective, the strategy developed here is generalizable and provides a toolkit for studying other classes of small membrane proteins embedded in liponanoparticles beyond PGTs.