A large number of inhibitory receptors recruit SHP1 and/or SHP2, tandem-SH2-containing phosphatases, through phosphotyrosine-based motifs ITIM and ITSM. Despite the similarity, these receptors exhibit differential effector binding specificities, as exemplified by the immune checkpoint receptors PD-1 and BTLA, which preferentially recruit SHP2 and SHP1 respectively. The molecular basis by which structurally similar receptors discriminate SHP1 and SHP2 is unclear. Here, we provide evidence that human PD-1 and BTLA optimally bind to SHP1 and SHP2 via a bivalent, parallel mode that involves both SH2 domains of SHP1 or SHP2. PD-1 mainly uses its ITSM to prefer SHP2 over SHP1 via their C-terminal SH2 domains (cSH2): swapping SHP1-cSH2 with SHP2-cSH2 enabled PD-1:SHP1 association in T cells. In contrast, BTLA primarily utilizes its ITIM to prefer SHP1 over SHP2 via their N-terminal SH2 domains (nSH2). The ITIM of PD-1, however, appeared to be de-emphasized due to a glycine at pY+1 position. Substitution of this glycine with alanine, a residue conserved in BTLA and several SHP1-recruiting receptors, was sufficient to induce PD-1:SHP1 interaction in T cells. Finally, structural simulation and mutagenesis screening showed that SHP1 recruitment activity exhibits a bell-shaped dependence on the side chain volume of the pY+1 residue of ITIM. Collectively, we provide a molecular interpretation of the SHP1/SHP2-binding specificities of PD-1 and BTLA, with implications for the mechanisms of a large family of therapeutically relevant receptors.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting file
- Enfu Hui
- Enfu Hui
- Enfu Hui
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Yuting Ma, Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, China
© 2021, Xu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Serine(S)/threonine(T)-glutamine(Q) cluster domains (SCDs), polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts and polyglutamine/asparagine (polyQ/N) tracts are Q-rich motifs found in many proteins. SCDs often are intrinsically disordered regions that mediate protein phosphorylation and protein-protein interactions. PolyQ and polyQ/N tracts are structurally flexible sequences that trigger protein aggregation. We report that due to their high percentages of STQ or STQN amino acid content, four SCDs and three prion-causing Q/N-rich motifs of yeast proteins possess autonomous protein expression-enhancing activities. Since these Q-rich motifs can endow proteins with structural and functional plasticity, we suggest that they represent useful toolkits for evolutionary novelty. Comparative Gene Ontology (GO) analyses of the near-complete proteomes of 26 representative model eukaryotes reveal that Q-rich motifs prevail in proteins involved in specialized biological processes, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA-mediated transposition and pseudohyphal growth, Candida albicans filamentous growth, ciliate peptidyl-glutamic acid modification and microtubule-based movement, Tetrahymena thermophila xylan catabolism and meiosis, Dictyostelium discoideum development and sexual cycles, Plasmodium falciparum infection, and the nervous systems of Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens. We also show that Q-rich-motif proteins are expanded massively in 10 ciliates with reassigned TAAQ and TAGQ codons. Notably, the usage frequency of CAGQ is much lower in ciliates with reassigned TAAQ and TAGQ codons than in organisms with expanded and unstable Q runs (e.g. D. melanogaster and H. sapiens), indicating that the use of noncanonical stop codons in ciliates may have coevolved with codon usage biases to avoid triplet repeat disorders mediated by CAG/GTC replication slippage.
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pregnancy complication in which a newborn fails to achieve its growth potential, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Chronic maternal gestational hypoxia, as well as placental insufficiency are associated with increased FGR incidence; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGR remain unknown.
Pregnant mice were subjected to acute or chronic hypoxia (12.5% O2) resulting in reduced fetal weight. Placenta oxygen transport was assessed by blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The placentae were analyzed via immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Human placentae were selected from FGR and matched controls and analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Maternal and cord sera were analyzed by mass spectrometry.
We show that murine acute and chronic gestational hypoxia recapitulates FGR phenotype and affects placental structure and morphology. Gestational hypoxia decreased labyrinth area, increased the incidence of red blood cells (RBCs) in the labyrinth while expanding the placental spiral arteries (SpA) diameter. Hypoxic placentae exhibited higher hemoglobin-oxygen affinity compared to the control. Placental abundance of Bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) was upregulated in the syncytiotrophoblast and spiral artery trophoblast cells (SpA TGCs) in the murine gestational hypoxia groups compared to the control. Hif1α levels were higher in the acute hypoxia group compared to the control. In contrast, human FGR placentae exhibited reduced BPGM levels in the syncytiotrophoblast layer compared to placentae from healthy uncomplicated pregnancies. Levels of 2,3 BPG, the product of BPGM, were lower in cord serum of human FGR placentae compared to control. Polar expression of BPGM was found in both human and mouse placentae syncytiotrophoblast, with higher expression facing the maternal circulation. Moreover, in the murine SpA TGCs expression of BPGM was concentrated exclusively in the apical cell side, in direct proximity to the maternal circulation.
This study suggests a possible involvement of placental BPGM in maternal-fetal oxygen transfer, and in the pathophysiology of FGR.
This work was supported by the Weizmann Krenter Foundation and the Weizmann – Ichilov (Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center) Collaborative Grant in Biomedical Research, by the Minerva Foundation, by the ISF KillCorona grant 3777/19.