Intraflagellar transport (IFT) carries proteins into flagella but how IFT trains interact with the large number of diverse proteins required to assemble flagella remains largely unknown. Here, we show that IFT of radial spokes in Chlamydomonas requires ARMC2/PF27, a conserved armadillo repeat protein associated with male infertility and reduced lung function. Chlamydomonas ARMC2 was highly enriched in growing flagella and tagged ARMC2 and the spoke protein RSP3 comigrated on anterograde trains. In contrast, a cargo and an adapter of inner and outer dynein arms moved independently of ARMC2, indicating that unrelated cargoes distribute stochastically onto the IFT trains. After concomitant unloading at the flagellar tip, RSP3 attached to the axoneme whereas ARMC2 diffused back to the cell body. In armc2/pf27 mutants, IFT of radial spokes was abolished and the presence of radial spokes was limited to the proximal region of flagella. We conclude that ARMC2 is a cargo adapter required for IFT of radial spokes to ensure their assembly along flagella. ARMC2 belongs to a growing class of cargo-specific adapters that enable flagellar transport of preassembled axonemal substructures by IFT.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting file; Source Data files have been provided for the western blots in Figures 1, 2, Figure 1 -Supplement 1 and Figure 2 - Supplement 1.
- Karl F Lechtreck
- Lea Alford
- Pinfen Yang
The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
- Lotte B Pedersen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
© 2022, Lechtreck et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Previously we showed that 2D template matching (2DTM) can be used to localize macromolecular complexes in images recorded by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) with high precision, even in the presence of noise and cellular background (Lucas et al., 2021; Lucas et al., 2022). Here, we show that once localized, these particles may be averaged together to generate high-resolution 3D reconstructions. However, regions included in the template may suffer from template bias, leading to inflated resolution estimates and making the interpretation of high-resolution features unreliable. We evaluate conditions that minimize template bias while retaining the benefits of high-precision localization, and we show that molecular features not present in the template can be reconstructed at high resolution from targets found by 2DTM, extending prior work at low-resolution. Moreover, we present a quantitative metric for template bias to aid the interpretation of 3D reconstructions calculated with particles localized using high-resolution templates and fine angular sampling.
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