Guanosine pentaphosphate and tetraphosphate (together referred to as ppGpp) are hyperphosphorylated nucleotides found in bacteria and the chloroplasts of plants and algae. In plants and algae artificial ppGpp accumulation can inhibit chloroplast gene expression, and influence photosynthesis, nutrient remobilisation, growth, and immunity. However, it is so far unknown whether ppGpp is required for abiotic stress acclimation in plants. Here, we demonstrate that ppGpp biosynthesis is necessary for acclimation to nitrogen starvation in Arabidopsis. We show that ppGpp is required for remodeling the photosynthetic electron transport chain to downregulate photosynthetic activity and for protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ppGpp is required for coupling chloroplastic and nuclear gene expression during nitrogen starvation. Altogether, our work indicates that ppGpp is a pivotal regulator of chloroplast activity for stress acclimation in plants.
All data presented in this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files Source Data files have been provided for Figures 1-5 (+ supplements).Sequencing data have been deposited at the European Nucleotide Archive under accession number PRJEB46181.
Effects of ppGpp on gene expression during nitrogen deprivation in Arabidopsis.European Nucleotide Archive, PRJEB46181.
- Benjamin Field
- Sylvie Citerne
- Jose Caius
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Shinji Masuda, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
© 2022, Romand et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
How to achieve sustainable food production while reducing environmental impacts is a major concern in agricultural science, and advanced breeding techniques are promising for achieving such goals. However, rice is usually grown under field conditions and influenced by surrounding ecological community members. How ecological communities influence the rice performance in the field has been underexplored despite the potential of ecological communities to establish an environment-friendly agricultural system. In the present study, we demonstrate an ecological-network-based approach to detect potentially influential, previously overlooked organisms for rice (Oryza sativa). First, we established small experimental rice plots, and measured rice growth and monitored ecological community dynamics intensively and extensively using quantitative environmental DNA metabarcoding in 2017 in Japan. We detected more than 1000 species (including microbes and macrobes such as insects) in the rice plots, and nonlinear time series analysis detected 52 potentially influential organisms with lower-level taxonomic information. The results of the time series analysis were validated under field conditions in 2019 by field manipulation experiments. In 2019, we focused on two species, Globisporangium nunn and Chironomus kiiensis, whose abundance was manipulated in artificial rice plots. The responses of rice, namely, the growth rate and gene expression patterns, were measured before and after the manipulation. We confirmed that, especially in the G. nunn-added treatment, rice growth rate and gene expression pattern were changed. In the present study, we demonstrated that intensive monitoring of an agricultural system and the application of nonlinear time series analysis were helpful to identify influential organisms under field conditions. Although the effects of the manipulations were relatively small, the research framework presented here has future potential to harness the ecological complexity and utilize it in agriculture. Our proof-of-concept study would be an important basis for the further development of field-basis system management.
The growth of a plant root relies on careful control of root surface pH.