Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is potentially an important therapy for central nervous system (CNS) trauma. However, its clinical application remains controversial, hampered by two major factors: 1) Many of the CNS injury sites, such as the optic nerve (ON), are deeply buried, preventing access for local TH. The alternative is to apply TH systemically, which significantly limits the applicable temperature range. 2) Even with possible access for “local refrigeration”, cold-induced cellular damage offsets the benefit of TH. Here we present a clinically translatable model of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) by applying clinical trans-nasal endoscopic surgery to goats and non-human primates. This model faithfully recapitulates clinical features of TON such as the injury site (pre-chiasmatic ON), the spatiotemporal pattern of neural degeneration, and the accessibility of local treatments with large operating space. We also developed a computer program to simplify the endoscopic procedure and expand this model to other large animal species. Moreover, applying a cold-protective treatment, inspired by our previous hibernation research, enables us to deliver deep hypothermia (4°C) locally to mitigate inflammation and metabolic stress (indicated by the transcriptomic changes after injury) without cold-induced cellular damage, and confers prominent neuroprotection both structurally and functionally. Intriguingly, neither treatment alone was effective, demonstrating that in situ deep hypothermia combined with cold protection constitutes a breakthrough for TH as a therapy for TON and other CNS traumas.
Computer program download site:https://github.com/LujieZhang/Preoperative-planning.The processed gene expression data in this paper have been deposited into the NCBI GEO database: GSE182164. RNA-seq data download site: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?&acc=GSE182164.
Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencingNCBI GEO database, GSE182164.
mRNA seq after hypothermia treatment of crush injury of the pre-chiasmatic optic nerveNCBI GEO database, GSE197123.
- Wencan Wu
- Wencan Wu
- Wencan Wu
- Yikui Zhang
- Wencan Wu
- Wencan Wu
- Wencan Wu
- Jian Yang
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Experiments were conducted following the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research guidelines.All protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee in the Wenzhou Medical University (Wenzhou, China, ID number: wydw2020-0789) and the Joinn Laboratory (Suzhou, China, ID number: P19-S445-PD).
- Paloma B Liton, Duke University School of Medicine, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
Neuronal- and circuit-level abnormalities of excitation and inhibition are shown to be associated with tau and amyloid-beta (Aβ) in preclinical models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These relationships remain poorly understood in patients with AD.
Using empirical spectra from magnetoencephalography and computational modeling (neural mass model), we examined excitatory and inhibitory parameters of neuronal subpopulations and investigated their specific associations to regional tau and Aβ, measured by positron emission tomography, in patients with AD.
Patients with AD showed abnormal excitatory and inhibitory time-constants and neural gains compared to age-matched controls. Increased excitatory time-constants distinctly correlated with higher tau depositions while increased inhibitory time-constants distinctly correlated with higher Aβ depositions.
Our results provide critical insights about potential mechanistic links between abnormal neural oscillations and cellular correlates of impaired excitatory and inhibitory synaptic functions associated with tau and Aβ in patients with AD.
This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health grants: K08AG058749 (KGR), F32AG050434-01A1 (KGR), K23 AG038357 (KAV), P50 AG023501, P01 AG19724 (BLM), P50-AG023501 (BLM and GDR), R01 AG045611 (GDR); AG034570, AG062542 (WJ); NS100440 (SSN), DC176960 (SSN), DC017091 (SSN), AG062196 (SSN); a grant from John Douglas French Alzheimer’s Foundation (KAV); grants from Larry L. Hillblom Foundation: 2015-A-034-FEL (KGR), 2019-A-013-SUP (KGR); grants from the Alzheimer’s Association: AARG-21-849773 (KGR); PCTRB-13-288476 (KAV), and made possible by Part the CloudTM (ETAC-09-133596); a grant from Tau Consortium (GDR and WJJ), and a gift from the S. D. Bechtel Jr. Foundation.
The large inter-individual variability in immune-cell composition and function determines immune responses in general and susceptibility o immune-mediated diseases in particular. While much has been learned about the genetic variants relevant for type 1 diabetes (T1D), the pathophysiological mechanisms through which these variations exert their effects remain unknown.
Blood samples were collected from 243 patients with T1D of Dutch descent. We applied genetic association analysis on >200 immune-cell traits and >100 cytokine production profiles in response to stimuli measured to identify genetic determinants of immune function, and compared the results obtained in T1D to healthy controls.
Genetic variants that determine susceptibility to T1D significantly affect T cell composition. Specifically, the CCR5+ regulatory T cells associate with T1D through the CCR region, suggesting a shared genetic regulation. Genome-wide quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping analysis of immune traits revealed 15 genetic loci that influence immune responses in T1D, including 12 that have never been reported in healthy population studies, implying a disease-specific genetic regulation.
This study provides new insights into the genetic factors that affect immunological responses in T1D.
This work was supported by an ERC starting grant (no. 948207) and a Radboud University Medical Centre Hypatia grant (2018) to YL and an ERC advanced grant (no. 833247) and a Spinoza grant of the Netherlands Association for Scientific Research to MGN CT received funding from the Perspectief Biomarker Development Center Research Programme, which is (partly) financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). AJ was funded by a grant from the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes (EFSD/AZ Macrovascular Programme 2015). XC was supported by the China Scholarship Council (201706040081).