Mycobacterium tuberculosis adenylyl cyclase (AC) Rv1625c / Cya is an evolutionary ancestor of the mammalian membrane ACs and a model system for studies of their structure and function. Although the vital role of ACs in cellular signaling is well established, the function of their transmembrane (TM) regions remains unknown. Here we describe the cryo-EM structure of Cya bound to a stabilizing nanobody at 3.6 Å resolution. The TM helices 1-5 form a structurally conserved domain that facilitates the assembly of the helical and catalytic domains. The TM region contains discrete pockets accessible from the extracellular and cytosolic side of the membrane. Neutralization of the negatively charged extracellular pocket Ex1 destabilizes the cytosolic helical domain and reduces the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The TM domain acts as a functional component of Cya, guiding the assembly of the catalytic domain and providing the means for direct regulation of catalytic activity in response to extracellular ligands.
The atomic coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank (7YZ9, 7YZI, 7YZK); the density maps have been deposited in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMD-14388, EMD-14389). The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD033826. All other data are available in the main text or the supplementary materials.
- Volodymyr M. Korkhov
- Volodymyr M. Korkhov
- Volodymyr M. Korkhov
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Andrew P Carter, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, United Kingdom
© 2022, Mehta et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factor forms a transcription co-activation complex with the key downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, YAP/TAZ. TEAD-YAP controls the expression of Hippo-responsive genes involved in cell proliferation, development, and tumorigenesis. Hyperactivation of TEAD-YAP activities is observed in many human cancers and is associated with cancer cell proliferation, survival, and immune evasion. Therefore, targeting the TEAD-YAP complex has emerged as an attractive therapeutic approach. We previously reported that the mammalian TEAD transcription factors (TEAD1–4) possess auto-palmitoylation activities and contain an evolutionarily conserved palmitate-binding pocket (PBP), which allows small-molecule modulation. Since then, several reversible and irreversible inhibitors have been reported by binding to PBP. Here, we report a new class of TEAD inhibitors with a novel binding mode. Representative analog TM2 shows potent inhibition of TEAD auto-palmitoylation both in vitro and in cells. Surprisingly, the co-crystal structure of the human TEAD2 YAP-binding domain (YBD) in complex with TM2 reveals that TM2 adopts an unexpected binding mode by occupying not only the hydrophobic PBP, but also a new side binding pocket formed by hydrophilic residues. RNA-seq analysis shows that TM2 potently and specifically suppresses TEAD-YAP transcriptional activities. Consistently, TM2 exhibits strong antiproliferation effects as a single agent or in combination with a MEK inhibitor in YAP-dependent cancer cells. These findings establish TM2 as a promising small-molecule inhibitor against TEAD-YAP activities and provide new insights for designing novel TEAD inhibitors with enhanced selectivity and potency.
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