Human influenza virus infection elicits distinct patterns of monocyte and dendritic cell mobilization in blood and the nasopharynx

Abstract

During respiratory viral infections, the precise roles of monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) in the nasopharynx in limiting infection and influencing disease severity are incompletely described. We studied circulating and nasopharyngeal monocytes and DCs in healthy controls (HC) and in patients with mild to moderate infections (primarily influenza A virus, IAV). As compared to HCs, patients with acute IAV infection displayed reduced DC but increased intermediate monocytes frequencies in blood, and an accumulation of most monocyte and DC subsets in the nasopharynx. IAV patients had more mature monocytes and DCs in the nasopharynx, and higher levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IFNα in plasma and the nasopharynx than HCs. In blood, monocytes were the most frequent cellular source of TNFα during IAV infection and remained responsive to additional stimulation with TLR7/8L. Immune responses in older patients skewed towards increased monocyte frequencies rather than DCs, suggesting a contributory role for monocytes in disease severity. In patients with other respiratory virus infections, we observed changes in monocyte and DC frequencies in the nasopharynx distinct from IAV patients, while differences in blood were more similar across infection groups. Using SomaScan, a high-throughput aptamer-based assay to study proteomic changes between patients and HCs, we found differential expression of innate immunity-related proteins in plasma and nasopharyngeal secretions of IAV and SARS-CoV-2 patients. Together, our findings demonstrate tissue-specific and pathogen-specific patterns of monocyte and DC function during human respiratory viral infections and highlight the importance of comparative investigations in blood and the nasopharynx.

Data availability

Source Data files have been provided for figures 1-7 and Appendix 2_Table 2 as separate excel files.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Sindhu Vangeti

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0003-3404-6878
  2. Sara Falck-Jones

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  3. Meng Yu

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  4. Björn Österberg

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  5. Sang Liu

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  6. Muhammad Asghar

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  7. Klara Sondén

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  8. Clare Paterson

    SomaLogic, Boulder, United States
    Competing interests
    Clare Paterson, is an employee and stockholder of SomaLogic Inc..
  9. Penn Whitley

    Boulder Bioconsulting Inc, Boulder, United States
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  10. Jan Albert

    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-9020-0521
  11. Niclas Johansson

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  12. Anna Färnert

    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Competing interests
    No competing interests declared.
  13. Anna Smed-Sörensen

    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    For correspondence
    anna.smed.sorensen@ki.se
    Competing interests
    Anna Smed-Sörensen, is a consultant to Astra-Zeneca on studies not related to the present study..
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-6966-7039

Funding

Vetenskapsrådet

  • Anna Smed-Sörensen

Hjärt-Lungfonden

  • Anna Smed-Sörensen

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

  • Anna Smed-Sörensen

Barncancerfonden

  • Anna Smed-Sörensen

Karolinska Institutet

  • Anna Smed-Sörensen

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Florent Ginhoux, Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore

Ethics

Human subjects: Informed consent was obtained from all patients and volunteers following verbal and written information. The study was approved by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority (No. 2015/1949-31/4) and performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki.

Version history

  1. Preprint posted: January 21, 2022 (view preprint)
  2. Received: January 25, 2022
  3. Accepted: February 7, 2023
  4. Accepted Manuscript published: February 8, 2023 (version 1)
  5. Version of Record published: February 28, 2023 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2023, Vangeti et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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  1. Sindhu Vangeti
  2. Sara Falck-Jones
  3. Meng Yu
  4. Björn Österberg
  5. Sang Liu
  6. Muhammad Asghar
  7. Klara Sondén
  8. Clare Paterson
  9. Penn Whitley
  10. Jan Albert
  11. Niclas Johansson
  12. Anna Färnert
  13. Anna Smed-Sörensen
(2023)
Human influenza virus infection elicits distinct patterns of monocyte and dendritic cell mobilization in blood and the nasopharynx
eLife 12:e77345.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.77345

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https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.77345

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