The establishment and maintenance of different cellular compartments in tissues is a universal requirement across all metazoans. Maintaining the correct ratio of cell types in time and space allows tissues to form patterned compartments and perform complex functions. Patterning is especially evident in the human colon, where tissue homeostasis is maintained by stem cells in crypt structures that balance proliferation and differentiation. Here, we developed a human 2D patient derived organoid (PDO) screening platform to study tissue patterning and kinase pathway dynamics in single cells. Using this system, we discovered that waves of ERK signaling induced by apoptotic cells play a critical role in maintaining tissue patterning and homeostasis. If ERK is activated acutely across all cells instead of in wavelike patterns, then tissue patterning and stem cells are lost. Conversely, if ERK activity is inhibited, then stem cells become unrestricted and expand dramatically. This work demonstrates that the colonic epithelium requires coordinated ERK signaling dynamics to maintain patterning and tissue homeostasis. Our work reveals how ERK can antagonize stem cells while supporting cell replacement and the function of the gut.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting file; Source Data files have been provided for all main figures
- Andrew L Paek
- Curtis A Thorne
- Nathan A Ellis
- Juanita L Merchant
- Kelvin W Pond
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#2021-0772) of the University of Arizona.
Human subjects: All primary colonic organoid cell lines to be used in this study have been anonymized by the Tissue Acquisition and Cellular/Molecular Analysis Shared Resource (TACMASR) at the University of Arizona Cancer Center. TACMASR is an on-campus biorepository to procure, store and retrieve biospecimens in a form that is deidentified and protects the privacy of the donors and confidentiality of the data collected. The individuals from whom the cells originated were resection patients at Banner University Medical Center. All researchparticipants in this proposal receive the cells with de-identified and anonymous labels that cannot trace back to the individual or their families from which they came. Thus, no one involved in this study can access the subject's identities. Therefore, the study is exempt from being considered human subject research.
- Ophir D Klein, University of California, San Francisco, United States
© 2022, Pond et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The GNOM (GN) Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor for ARF small GTPases (ARF-GEF) is among the best studied trafficking regulators in plants, playing crucial and unique developmental roles in patterning and polarity. The current models place GN at the Golgi apparatus (GA), where it mediates secretion/recycling, and at the plasma membrane (PM) presumably contributing to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). The mechanistic basis of the developmental function of GN, distinct from the other ARF-GEFs including its closest homologue GNOM-LIKE1 (GNL1), remains elusive. Insights from this study largely extend the current notions of GN function. We show that GN, but not GNL1, localizes to the cell periphery at long-lived structures distinct from clathrin-coated pits, while CME and secretion proceed normally in gn knockouts. The functional GN mutant variant GNfewerroots, absent from the GA, suggests that the cell periphery is the major site of GN action responsible for its developmental function. Following inhibition by Brefeldin A, GN, but not GNL1, relocates to the PM likely on exocytic vesicles, suggesting selective molecular associations en route to the cell periphery. A study of GN-GNL1 chimeric ARF-GEFs indicates that all GN domains contribute to the specific GN function in a partially redundant manner. Together, this study offers significant steps toward the elucidation of the mechanism underlying unique cellular and development functions of GNOM.
Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GONFH) is a common refractory joint disease characterized by bone damage and the collapse of femoral head structure. However, the exact pathological mechanisms of GONFH remain unknown. Here, we observed abnormal osteogenesis and adipogenesis associated with decreased β-catenin in the necrotic femoral head of GONFH patients. In vivo and in vitro studies further revealed that glucocorticoid exposure disrupted osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) by inhibiting β-catenin signaling in glucocorticoid-induced GONFH rats. Col2+ lineage largely contributes to BMSCs and was found an osteogenic commitment in the femoral head through 9 mo of lineage trace. Specific deletion of β-catenin gene (Ctnnb1) in Col2+ cells shifted their commitment from osteoblasts to adipocytes, leading to a full spectrum of disease phenotype of GONFH in adult mice. Overall, we uncover that β-catenin inhibition disrupting the homeostasis of osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation contributes to the development of GONFH and identify an ideal genetic-modified mouse model of GONFH.