Automating the extraction of meaningful temporal information from sequences of microscopy images represents a major challenge to characterize dynamical biological processes. So far, strong limitations in the ability to quantitatively analyze single-cell trajectories have prevented large-scale investigations to assess the dynamics of entry into replicative senescence in yeast. Here, we have developed DetecDiv, a microfluidic-based image acquisition platform combined with deep learning-based software for high-throughput single-cell division tracking. We show that DetecDiv can automatically reconstruct cellular replicative lifespans with high accuracy and performs similarly with various imaging platforms and geometries of microfluidic traps. In addition, this methodology provides comprehensive temporal cellular metrics using time-series classification and image semantic segmentation. Last, we show that this method can be further applied to automatically quantify the dynamics of cellular adaptation and real-time cell survival upon exposure to environmental stress. Hence, this methodology provides an all-in-one toolbox for high-throughput phenotyping for cell cycle, stress response, and replicative lifespan assays.
Software and documentation is fully available via Github.Data used for training classifiers is available using several zenodo repositories.A demo detecdiv project that contains all information to train users on detecdiv is available on zenodo.All the links are provided in the manuscript file.
- Gilles Charvin
- Gilles Charvin
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Ihor Smal, Erasmus University Medical Center, Netherlands
© 2022, Aspert et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The GNOM (GN) Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor for ARF small GTPases (ARF-GEF) is among the best studied trafficking regulators in plants, playing crucial and unique developmental roles in patterning and polarity. The current models place GN at the Golgi apparatus (GA), where it mediates secretion/recycling, and at the plasma membrane (PM) presumably contributing to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). The mechanistic basis of the developmental function of GN, distinct from the other ARF-GEFs including its closest homologue GNOM-LIKE1 (GNL1), remains elusive. Insights from this study largely extend the current notions of GN function. We show that GN, but not GNL1, localizes to the cell periphery at long-lived structures distinct from clathrin-coated pits, while CME and secretion proceed normally in gn knockouts. The functional GN mutant variant GNfewerroots, absent from the GA, suggests that the cell periphery is the major site of GN action responsible for its developmental function. Following inhibition by Brefeldin A, GN, but not GNL1, relocates to the PM likely on exocytic vesicles, suggesting selective molecular associations en route to the cell periphery. A study of GN-GNL1 chimeric ARF-GEFs indicates that all GN domains contribute to the specific GN function in a partially redundant manner. Together, this study offers significant steps toward the elucidation of the mechanism underlying unique cellular and development functions of GNOM.
Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GONFH) is a common refractory joint disease characterized by bone damage and the collapse of femoral head structure. However, the exact pathological mechanisms of GONFH remain unknown. Here, we observed abnormal osteogenesis and adipogenesis associated with decreased β-catenin in the necrotic femoral head of GONFH patients. In vivo and in vitro studies further revealed that glucocorticoid exposure disrupted osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) by inhibiting β-catenin signaling in glucocorticoid-induced GONFH rats. Col2+ lineage largely contributes to BMSCs and was found an osteogenic commitment in the femoral head through 9 mo of lineage trace. Specific deletion of β-catenin gene (Ctnnb1) in Col2+ cells shifted their commitment from osteoblasts to adipocytes, leading to a full spectrum of disease phenotype of GONFH in adult mice. Overall, we uncover that β-catenin inhibition disrupting the homeostasis of osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation contributes to the development of GONFH and identify an ideal genetic-modified mouse model of GONFH.