The differentiation of oligodendroglia from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to complex and extensive myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) is a multistep process that involves largescale morphological changes with significant strain on the cytoskeleton. While key chromatin and transcriptional regulators of differentiation have been identified, their target genes responsible for the morphological changes occurring during OL myelination are still largely unknown. Here, we show that the regulator of focal adhesion, Tensin3 (Tns3), is a direct target gene of Olig2, Chd7, and Chd8, transcriptional regulators of OL differentiation. Tns3 is transiently upregulated and localized to cell processes of immature OLs, together with integrin-b1, a key mediator of survival at this transient stage. Constitutive Tns3 loss-of-function leads to reduced viability in mouse and humans, with surviving knockout mice still expressing Tns3 in oligodendroglia. Acute deletion of Tns3 in vivo, either in postnatal neural stem cells (NSCs) or in OPCs, leads to a two-fold reduction in OL numbers. We find that the transient upregulation of Tns3 is required to protect differentiating OPCs and immature OLs from cell death by preventing the upregulation of p53, a key regulator of apoptosis. Altogether, our findings reveal a specific time window during which transcriptional upregulation of Tns3 in immature OLs is required for OL differentiation likely by mediating integrin-b1 survival signaling to the actin cytoskeleton as OL undergo the large morphological changes required for their terminal differentiation.
Sequencing data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE203295
Transient regulation of focal adhesion via Tensin3 is required for nascent oligodendrocyte differentiationNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE203295.
scRNA-seq postnatal oligodendrogliaNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE75330.
scRNA-seq developmental oligodendrogliaNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE95194.
snRNA-seq human midgestation cerbellumdbGaP, phs001908.v2.p1.
scRNA-seq from iPSC-derived Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor CellsNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus,GSE146373.
- Carlos Parras
- Corentine Marie
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal procedures were performed according to the guidelines and regulations of the Inserm ethical committees (authorization #A75-13-19) and animal experimentation license A75-17-72
- Klaus-Armin Nave, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Germany
© 2022, Merour et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Imaging experiments reveal the complex and dynamic nature of the transcriptional hubs associated with Notch signaling.
Cylicins are testis-specific proteins, which are exclusively expressed during spermiogenesis. In mice and humans, two Cylicins, the gonosomal X-linked Cylicin 1 (Cylc1/CYLC1) and the autosomal Cylicin 2 (Cylc2/CYLC2) genes, have been identified. Cylicins are cytoskeletal proteins with an overall positive charge due to lysine-rich repeats. While Cylicins have been localized in the acrosomal region of round spermatids, they resemble a major component of the calyx within the perinuclear theca at the posterior part of mature sperm nuclei. However, the role of Cylicins during spermiogenesis has not yet been investigated. Here, we applied CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in zygotes to establish Cylc1- and Cylc2-deficient mouse lines as a model to study the function of these proteins. Cylc1 deficiency resulted in male subfertility, whereas Cylc2-/-, Cylc1-/yCylc2+/-, and Cylc1-/yCylc2-/- males were infertile. Phenotypical characterization revealed that loss of Cylicins prevents proper calyx assembly during spermiogenesis. This results in decreased epididymal sperm counts, impaired shedding of excess cytoplasm, and severe structural malformations, ultimately resulting in impaired sperm motility. Furthermore, exome sequencing identified an infertile man with a hemizygous variant in CYLC1 and a heterozygous variant in CYLC2, displaying morphological abnormalities of the sperm including the absence of the acrosome. Thus, our study highlights the relevance and importance of Cylicins for spermiogenic remodeling and male fertility in human and mouse, and provides the basis for further studies on unraveling the complex molecular interactions between perinuclear theca proteins required during spermiogenesis.