Results of a Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by country, on time to death in the first 28 days since hospital admission or onset of symptoms, which happened latest, are shown in the Hazard ratio column. For this analysis, if follow-up duration was longer than 28 days, it was set to 28 days, and patients who were discharged were censored on the day of discharge. The assumption of proportional hazards was violated for the variable on previous vaccination; for this reason, the model was also stratified by this variable. An alternative analysis assumed that patients discharged from hospital were censored on day 28; in this analysis, the hazard ratio for the variable corresponding to study period was 0.68 (0.63–0.74); for this model, the proportional hazards assumption did not hold for the study period variable. We also fit a competing risk model, with hospital discharge as competing event; estimates from this model are presented in the Subhazard ratio column. In this model, previous COVID-19 vaccination was included as a covariate (subhazard ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.52–0.59). We also fit a competing risk model using only data from the six countries included in Figures 3—5 and that included country as a dummy variable; in this model, the subhazard ratio for the Omicron period variable was 0.68 95% CI (0.63–0.74).