Heme can serve as iron source in many environments, including the iron-poor animal host environment. The fungal pathobiont Candida albicans expresses a family of extracellular CFEM hemophores that capture heme from host proteins and transfer it across the cell wall to the cell membrane, to be endocytosed and utilized as heme or iron source. Here we identified Frp1 and Frp2, two ferric reductase (FRE)-related proteins that lack an extracellular N-terminal substrate-binding domain, as being required for hemoglobin heme utilization and for sensitivity to toxic heme analogs. Frp1 and Frp2 redistribute to the plasma membrane in the presence of hemin, consistent with a direct role in heme trafficking. Expression of Frp1 with the CFEM hemophore Pga7 can promote heme utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well, confirming the functional interaction between these proteins. Sequence and structure comparison reveals that the CFEM hemophores are related to the FRE substrate-binding domain that is missing in Frp1/2. We conclude that Frp1/2 and the CFEM hemophores form a functional complex that evolved from ferric reductases to enable extracellular heme uptake.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. A sequence alignment summary file used for phylogenetic profiling analysis is available on Github at https://github.com/BKU-Technion/FRP
MycoCosm portal: gearing up for 1000 fungal genomeshttps://mycocosm.jgi.doe.gov/mycocosm/home.
"Candida Genome Database"http://www.candidagenome.org/download/.
- Daniel Kornitzer
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Arturo Casadevall, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, United States
© 2022, Roy et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Experiments involving periodic stimuli shed light on the interplay between hyper-osmotic stress and glucose starvation in yeast cells.
The dynamic interplay between guanine-quadruplex (G4) structures and pathogenicity islands (PAIs) represents a captivating area of research with implications for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity. This study conducted a comprehensive analysis of a large-scale dataset from reported 89 pathogenic strains of bacteria to investigate the potential interactions between G4 structures and PAIs. G4 structures exhibited an uneven and non-random distribution within the PAIs and were consistently conserved within the same pathogenic strains. Additionally, this investigation identified positive correlations between the number and frequency of G4 structures and the GC content across different genomic features, including the genome, promoters, genes, tRNA, and rRNA regions, indicating a potential relationship between G4 structures and the GC-associated regions of the genome. The observed differences in GC content between PAIs and the core genome further highlight the unique nature of PAIs and underlying factors, such as DNA topology. High-confidence G4 structures within regulatory regions of Escherichia coli were identified, modulating the efficiency or specificity of DNA integration events within PAIs. Collectively, these findings pave the way for future research to unravel the intricate molecular mechanisms and functional implications of G4-PAI interactions, thereby advancing our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and the role of G4 structures in pathogenic diseases.