The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in response to inflammation leading to increased production of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids by the adrenal cortex, thereby representing an endogenous feedback loop. However, severe inflammation reduces the responsiveness of the adrenal gland to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show by transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic analyses that LPS-induced systemic inflammation triggers profound metabolic changes in steroidogenic adrenocortical cells, including downregulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, in mice. Inflammation disrupts the TCA cycle at the level of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), leading to succinate accumulation and disturbed steroidogenesis. Mechanistically, IL-1β reduces SDHB expression through upregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and methylation of the SDHB promoter. Consequently, increased succinate levels impair oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis and enhance ROS production, leading to reduced steroidogenesis. Together, we demonstrate that the IL-1β-DNMT1-SDHB-succinate axis disrupts steroidogenesis. Our findings not only provide a mechanistic explanation for the adrenal dysfunction in severe inflammation, but also offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
RNA-Seq data are available in: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE200220.The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository, with the dataset identifier PXD036542. Once the article is accepted, data will be made public and accessible.
Effect of LPS treatment on gene expression in the murine adrenal cortexNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE200220.
- Ben Wielockx
- Mirko Peitzsch
- Vasileia Ismini Alexaki
- Vasileia Ismini Alexaki
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: The animal experiments were approved by the Landesdirektion Sachsen Germany (protocol number TVV57/2018).
- Thomas L Clemens, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States
© 2023, Mateska et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Activating mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause Parkinson’s disease. LRRK2 phosphorylates a subset of Rab GTPases, particularly Rab10 and Rab8A, and we showed previously that these phosphoRabs play an important role in LRRK2 membrane recruitment and activation (Vides et al., 2022). To learn more about LRRK2 pathway regulation, we carried out an unbiased, CRISPR-based genome-wide screen to identify modifiers of cellular phosphoRab10 levels. A flow cytometry assay was developed to detect changes in phosphoRab10 levels in pools of mouse NIH-3T3 cells harboring unique CRISPR guide sequences. Multiple negative and positive regulators were identified; surprisingly, knockout of the Rab12 gene was especially effective in decreasing phosphoRab10 levels in multiple cell types and knockout mouse tissues. Rab-driven increases in phosphoRab10 were specific for Rab12, LRRK2-dependent and PPM1H phosphatase-reversible, and did not require Rab12 phosphorylation; they were seen with wild type and pathogenic G2019S and R1441C LRRK2. As expected for a protein that regulates LRRK2 activity, Rab12 also influenced primary cilia formation. AlphaFold modeling revealed a novel Rab12 binding site in the LRRK2 Armadillo domain, and we show that residues predicted to be essential for Rab12 interaction at this site influence phosphoRab10 and phosphoRab12 levels in a manner distinct from Rab29 activation of LRRK2. Our data show that Rab12 binding to a new site in the LRRK2 Armadillo domain activates LRRK2 kinase for Rab phosphorylation and could serve as a new therapeutic target for a novel class of LRRK2 inhibitors that do not target the kinase domain.
The MRTF–SRF pathway has been extensively studied for its crucial role in driving the expression of a large number of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton of various cell types. However, the specific contribution of MRTF–SRF in hair cells remains unknown. In this study, we showed that hair cell-specific deletion of Srf or Mrtfb, but not Mrtfa, leads to similar defects in the development of stereocilia dimensions and the maintenance of cuticular plate integrity. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based hair cell RNA-Seq analysis to investigate the mechanistic underpinnings of the changes observed in Srf and Mrtfb mutants, respectively. Interestingly, the transcriptome analysis revealed distinct profiles of genes regulated by Srf and Mrtfb, suggesting different transcriptional regulation mechanisms of actin cytoskeleton activities mediated by Srf and Mrtfb. Exogenous delivery of calponin 2 using Adeno-associated virus transduction in Srf mutants partially rescued the impairments of stereocilia dimensions and the F-actin intensity of cuticular plate, suggesting the involvement of Cnn2, as an Srf downstream target, in regulating the hair bundle morphology and cuticular plate actin cytoskeleton organization. Our study uncovers, for the first time, the unexpected differential transcriptional regulation of actin cytoskeleton mediated by Srf and Mrtfb in hair cells, and also demonstrates the critical role of SRF–CNN2 in modulating actin dynamics of the stereocilia and cuticular plate, providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying hair cell development and maintenance.