Inconsistencies between human and macaque lesion data can be resolved with a stimulus-computable model of the ventral visual stream

  1. Tyler Bonnen  Is a corresponding author
  2. Mark AG Eldridge  Is a corresponding author
  1. Stanford University, United States
  2. National Institute of Mental Health, United States


Decades of neuroscientific research has sought to understand medial temporal lobe (MTL) involvement in perception. Apparent inconsistencies in the literature have led to competing interpretations of the available evidence; critically, findings from human participants with naturally occurring MTL damage appear to be inconsistent with findings from monkeys with surgical lesions. Here we leverage a 'stimulus-computable' proxy for the primate ventral visual stream (VVS), which enables us to formally evaluate perceptual demands across stimulus sets, experiments, and species. With this approach, we analyze a series of experiments administered to monkeys with surgical, bilateral damage to perirhinal cortex (PRC), a MTL structure implicated in visual object perception. Across experiments, PRC-lesioned subjects showed no impairment on perceptual tasks; this originally led us (Eldridge et al., 2018) to conclude that PRC is not involved in perception. Here we find that a 'VVS-like' model predicts both PRC-intact and -lesioned choice behaviors, suggesting that a linear readout of the VVS should be sufficient for performance on these tasks. Evaluating these data alongside findings from human experiments, we suggest that results from Eldridge et al., 2018 alone can not be used as evidence against PRC involvement in perception. These data suggest that the experimental findings from human and non-human primate literature are consistent, and apparent discrepancies between species was due to reliance on informal accounts of perceptual processing.

Data availability

All scripts used for analysis and visualization can be accessed via github at stimuli and behavioral data used in these analyses can be downloaded via Dryad

The following data sets were generated
The following previously published data sets were used

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Tyler Bonnen

    Stanford University, Stanford, United States
    For correspondence
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-8709-1651
  2. Mark AG Eldridge

    National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, United States
    For correspondence
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0003-4292-6832


National Institute of Mental Health (ZIAMH002032)

  • Tyler Bonnen

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (F99NS125816)

  • Tyler Bonnen

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Lila Davachi, Columbia University, United States


Animal experimentation: All experimental procedures conformed to the Institute of Medicine Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and were performed under an Animal Study Protocol approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the National Institute of Mental Health, covered by project number: MH002032.

Version history

  1. Preprint posted: September 15, 2022 (view preprint)
  2. Received: November 1, 2022
  3. Accepted: June 5, 2023
  4. Accepted Manuscript published: June 6, 2023 (version 1)
  5. Version of Record published: June 29, 2023 (version 2)


This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.


  • 634
    Page views
  • 58
  • 1

Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

  1. Tyler Bonnen
  2. Mark AG Eldridge
Inconsistencies between human and macaque lesion data can be resolved with a stimulus-computable model of the ventral visual stream
eLife 12:e84357.

Share this article

Further reading

    1. Neuroscience
    Lies Deceuninck, Fabian Kloosterman
    Research Article Updated

    Storing and accessing memories is required to successfully perform day-to-day tasks, for example for engaging in a meaningful conversation. Previous studies in both rodents and primates have correlated hippocampal cellular activity with behavioral expression of memory. A key role has been attributed to awake hippocampal replay – a sequential reactivation of neurons representing a trajectory through space. However, it is unclear if awake replay impacts immediate future behavior, gradually creates and stabilizes long-term memories over a long period of time (hours and longer), or enables the temporary memorization of relevant events at an intermediate time scale (seconds to minutes). In this study, we aimed to address the uncertainty around the timeframe of impact of awake replay by collecting causal evidence from behaving rats. We detected and disrupted sharp wave ripples (SWRs) - signatures of putative replay events - using electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampal commissure in rats that were trained on three different spatial memory tasks. In each task, rats were required to memorize a new set of locations in each trial or each daily session. Interestingly, the rats performed equally well with or without SWR disruptions. These data suggest that awake SWRs - and potentially replay - does not affect the immediate behavior nor the temporary memorization of relevant events at a short timescale that are required to successfully perform the spatial tasks. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the impact of awake replay on memory and behavior is long-term and cumulative over time.

    1. Neuroscience
    Sydney Trask, Nicole C Ferrara

    Gradually reducing a source of fear during extinction treatments may weaken negative memories in the long term.