Plant roots navigate in the soil environment following the gravity vector. Cell divisions in the meristem and rapid cell growth in the elongation zone propel the root tips through the soil. Actively elongating cells acidify their apoplast to enable cell wall extension by the activity of plasma membrane AHA H+-ATPases. The phytohormone auxin, central regulator of gravitropic response and root development, inhibits root cell growth, likely by rising the pH of the apoplast. However, the role of auxin in the regulation of the apoplastic pH gradient along the root tip is unclear. Here we show, by using an improved method for visualization and quantification of root surface pH, that the Arabidopsis thaliana root surface pH shows distinct acidic and alkaline zones, which are not primarily determined by the activity of AHA H+-ATPases. Instead, the distinct domain of alkaline pH in the root transition zone is controlled by a rapid auxin response module, consisting of the AUX1 auxin influx carrier, the AFB1 auxin co-receptor and the CNCG14 calcium channel. We demonstrate that the rapid auxin response pathway is required for an efficient navigation of the root tip.
All the data used for the the manuscript are available at Zenodo.The statistics used and p-values are available as supplementary file.
The AUX1-AFB1-CNGC14 module establishes a longitudinal root surface pH profile main figuresZenodo, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.8138861.
The AUX1-AFB1-CNGC14 module establishes a longitudinal root surface pH profile supplementary figuresZenodo, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.8140893.
- Nelson BC Serre
- Daša Wernerová
- Pruthvi Vittal
- Shiv Mani Dubey
- Eva Medvecká
- Matyáš Fendrych
- Guido Grossmann
- Guido Grossmann
- Guido Grossmann
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Yoselin Benitez-Alfonso, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
© 2023, Serre et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Global agro-biodiversity has resulted from processes of plant migration and agricultural adoption. Although critically affecting current diversity, crop diffusion from Classical antiquity to the Middle Ages is poorly researched, overshadowed by studies on that of prehistoric periods. A new archaeobotanical dataset from three Negev Highland desert sites demonstrates the first millennium CE&'s significance for long-term agricultural change in southwest Asia. This enables evaluation of the 'Islamic Green Revolution' (IGR) thesis compared to 'Roman Agricultural Diffusion' (RAD), and both versus crop diffusion during and since the Neolithic. Among the finds, some of the earliest aubergine (Solanum melongena) seeds in the Levant represent the proposed IGR. Several other identified economic plants, including two unprecedented in Levantine archaeobotany-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba/mauritiana) and white lupine (Lupinus albus)-implicate RAD as the greater force for crop migrations. Altogether the evidence supports a gradualist model for Holocene-wide crop diffusion, within which the first millennium CE contributed more to global agricultural diversity than any earlier period.
Purinergic signaling activated by extracellular nucleotides and their derivative nucleosides trigger sophisticated signaling networks. The outcome of these pathways determine the capacity of the organism to survive under challenging conditions. Both extracellular ATP (eATP) and Adenosine (eAdo) act as primary messengers in mammals, essential for immunosuppressive responses. Despite the clear role of eATP as a plant damage-associated molecular pattern, the function of its nucleoside, eAdo, and of the eAdo/eATP balance in plant stress response remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly relevant in the context of plant-microbe interaction, where the intruder manipulates the extracellular matrix. Here, we identify Ado as a main molecule secreted by the vascular fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We show that eAdo modulates the plant's susceptibility to fungal colonization by altering the eATP-mediated apoplastic pH homeostasis, an essential physiological player during the infection of this pathogen. Our work indicates that plant pathogens actively imbalance the apoplastic eAdo/eATP levels as a virulence mechanism.