The phylum of Apicomplexa groups intracellular parasites that employ substrate-dependent gliding motility to invade host cells, egress from the infected cells and cross biological barriers. The glideosome associated connector (GAC) is a conserved protein essential to this process. GAC facilitates the association of actin filaments with surface transmembrane adhesins and the efficient transmission of the force generated by myosin translocation of actin to the cell surface substrate. Here, we present the crystal structure of Toxoplasma gondii GAC and reveal a unique, supercoiled armadillo repeat region that adopts a closed ring conformation. Characterisation of the solution properties together with membrane and F-actin binding interfaces suggest that GAC adopts several conformations from closed to open and extended. A multi-conformational model for assembly and regulation of GAC within the glideosome is proposed.
Diffraction data have been deposited in PDB under the accession code 8C4A.The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD039335.All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript, figures and supplementary files.
- Stephen Matthews
- Stephen Matthews
- Dominique Soldati-Favre
- Dominique Soldati-Favre
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Olivier Silvie, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, CNRS, France
© 2023, Kumar et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a major cell entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The induction of ACE2 expression may serve as a strategy by SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate its propagation. However, the regulatory mechanisms of ACE2 expression after viral infection remain largely unknown. Using 45 different luciferase reporters, the transcription factors SP1 and HNF4α were found to positively and negatively regulate ACE2 expression, respectively, at the transcriptional level in human lung epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs). SARS-CoV-2 infection increased the transcriptional activity of SP1 while inhibiting that of HNF4α. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, activated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, served as a crucial regulatory node, inducing ACE2 expression by enhancing SP1 phosphorylation—a marker of its activity—and reducing the nuclear localization of HNF4α. However, colchicine treatment inhibited the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, thereby suppressing ACE2 expression. In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with SARS-CoV-2, inhibition of SP1 by either mithramycin A or colchicine resulted in reduced viral replication and tissue injury. In summary, our study uncovers a novel function of SP1 in the regulation of ACE2 expression and identifies SP1 as a potential target to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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