(A) Overall, vocalization rates were comparable between dyadic (D) and triadic (T) conditions. Male mice (blue) vocalized at higher rates than female mice (red). However, this was restricted to the dominant male mouse (TD: dominant = emitted more ultrasonic vocalizations [USVs] within same-sex) in triadic, competitive (2 m/1 f) conditions (see text for all p-values). Male vocalization rates were similar in competitive (TC: with same-sex competitors) and alternative (TA: no same-sex competitor, i.e., for male vocs: 2 f/1 m) pairings. Female vocalization rates remained low and similar across all conditions. TS: submissive mouse = emitted fewer USVs within same sex during competitive trial; white dot: median; horizontal bar: mean (N = 83 recordings in all panels, in the groupings D/T vocalizations are grouped by sex, whereas in TD,S,C,A USVs are per individual, same in panels B–D). (B) While the fraction of USVs emitted by males was overall comparable between D and T pairings, the dominant male (TD) emitted a substantially larger fraction than their submissive counterpart (TS), roughly a factor of 9. In competitive pairings, male mice tended to emit an overall larger fraction of all USVs than in alternative pairings (TC vs. TA), but this is unsurprising as both males vocalize. In female mice, the overall fraction of USVs in D and T pairings was also similar (see details in ‘Results’ for potential caveats of the dominant/subordinate classification). (C) In triadic pairings, dominant male mice tended to vocalize more intensely than in dyadic pairings; however, this difference was not significant at the current sample size. No significant differences were found for female mice. (D) Male mice emitted USVs in closer proximity to the closest female mouse in triadic compared to dyadic interactions. Female mice generally emitted USVs at closer distances (see also Figure 4F/H), in particular for alternative vs. competitive pairings.