Infection with the etiological agent of COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, appears capable of impacting cognition, which some patients with Post-acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC). To evaluate neuro-pathophysiological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we examine transcriptional and cellular signatures in the Broadman area 9 (BA9) of the frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation (HF) in SARS-CoV-2, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and SARS-CoV-2 infected AD individuals, compared to age- and gender-matched neurological cases. Here we show similar alterations of neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier integrity in SARS-CoV-2, AD, and SARS-CoV-2 infected AD individuals. Distribution of microglial changes reflected by the increase of Iba-1 reveal nodular morphological alterations in SARS-CoV-2 infected AD individuals. Similarly, HIF-1α is significantly upregulated in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the same brain regions regardless of AD status. The finding may help to inform decision-making regarding therapeutic treatments in patients with neuro-PASC, especially those at increased risk of developing AD.
The authors declare that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the paper and its supplementary information files. The raw data discussed in this publication are accessible through NCBI's Gene Expression Ominubus (GEO).
Recapitulation of pathophysiological features of AD in SARS-CoV-2 -infected subjectsNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE236562.
No external funding was received for this work.
Human subjects: While no living humans or animals were used for these studies, we performed studies using human postmortem tissue in accordance with IRB-approved guidelines and regulations at Mount Sinai.
- Laura L Colgin, University of Texas at Austin, United States
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Candida albicans, an opportunistic human pathogen, poses a significant threat to human health and is associated with significant socio-economic burden. Current antifungal treatments fail, at least in part, because C. albicans can initiate a strong drug tolerance response that allows some cells to grow at drug concentrations above their minimal inhibitory concentration. To better characterize this cytoprotective tolerance program at the molecular single-cell level, we used a nanoliter droplet-based transcriptomics platform to profile thousands of individual fungal cells and establish their subpopulation characteristics in the absence and presence of antifungal drugs. Profiles of untreated cells exhibit heterogeneous expression that correlates with cell cycle stage with distinct metabolic and stress responses. At 2 days post-fluconazole exposure (a time when tolerance is measurable), surviving cells bifurcate into two major subpopulations: one characterized by the upregulation of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, rRNA processing machinery, and mitochondrial cellular respiration capacity, termed the Ribo-dominant (Rd) state; and the other enriched for genes encoding stress responses and related processes, termed the Stress-dominant (Sd) state. This bifurcation persists at 3 and 6 days post-treatment. We provide evidence that the ribosome assembly stress response (RASTR) is activated in these subpopulations and may facilitate cell survival.
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