Table 2. | New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins

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New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins

Table 2.

Affiliation details

University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Università di Perugia, Italy; Sapienza Università di Roma, Italy; Università di Pisa, Italy; Studio Associato Grassi, Italy; Università di Firenze, Italy
Table 2.

Dimensional parameters measured and derived from the Laetoli Site S tracks and stature and body mass estimates for S1 and S2.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19568.019

Footprint

Side

Length (mm)

Max width (mm)

Foot index (%)

Heel width (mm)

Angle of gait (degrees)

Estimated stature (cm)

Estimated body mass (kg)

H. sapiens§

H. sapiens°

Au. afarensis

H. sapiens°

Au. afarensis

TP2/S1-1

right

271

101

37.2

83

6

194–170

175.4

167–175

53.8

42.9–50.0

TP2/S1-2

left

271

99

36.6

81

4

193–169

175.1

167–175

53.1

42.8–49.8

M9/S1-1

left

250

102

40.6

73

2

179–156

167.5

154–161

51.6

39.6–46.0

M9/S1-2

right

264

105

39.7

80

3

189–165

172.8

163–171

54.2

41.8–48.7

M9/S1-3

left

268

111

41.2

91

4

192–168

174.3

166–173

56.3

42.5–49.4

M9/S1-4

right

245

101

41.2

71

4

175–153

165.6

151–158

50.9

38.8–45.1

L8/S1-1

right

245

104

42.4

78

8

175–153

165.6

151–158

51.7

38.8–45.1

L8/S1-2

left

265

106

40.0

82

11

189–166

173.1

164–171

54.5

41.9–48.8

L8/S1-3

right

260

103

39.6

77

3

186–163

171.3

161–168

53.1

41.2–47.9

L8/S1-4

left

274

106

38.6

81

10

196–171

176.5

169–177

55.6

43.4–50.5

L8/S1-5

right

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

L8/S1-6

left

-

-

-

86

3

-

-

-

-

-

L8/S1-7

right

258

110

42.7

90

8

184–161

170.3

159–166

54.8

40.7–47.4

Average S1

-

261

104

40.0

81

6

184–163

171.6

161–168

53.6

41.3–48.1

TP2/S2-1

right

231

120*

51.9*

86

-

165–144

160

142–149

46.7

36.5–42.4

Step length

Stride length

Footprints

Side

Step length (mm)

Footprints

Side

Stride length (mm)

TP2/S1-1 → 2

right → left

553

M9/S1-1 → 3

left

1044

M9/S1-1 → 2

left → right

548

M9/S1-2 → 4

right

1069

M9/S1-2 → 3

right → left

505

L8/S1-1 → 3

right

1140

M9/S1-3 → 4

left → right

571

L8/S1-2 → 4

left

1159

L8/S1-1 → 2

right → left

552

L8/S1-4 → 6

left

1284

L8/S1-2 → 3

left → right

587

Average right

1105

L8/S1-3 → 4

right → left

573

Average left

1162

L8/S1-6 → 7

left → right

660

Average

1139

Average right → left

545

Average left → right

591

Average

568

  • *Values overestimated because of the enlarged morphology of the only preserved track of S2. §Estimation based on the relationship between foot length and stature in Homo sapiens (Tuttle, 1987). °Estimation based on the relationship between footprint length and stature/body mass in H. sapiens (Dingwall et al., 2013). Estimation based on the relationship between foot length and stature/body mass in Au. afarensis (Dingwall et al., 2013). See Materials and methods for details.