(A) Background, persistent, transient, recurrent, and driver mutations in patient time courses. Shown is a schematic illustration of the genomes of isolates (gray bars) from two patient time courses (Patient A and B, left and right panels, respectively), ordered from the first isolate (progenitor, top) to the last (evolved, bottom). Background mutations (purple) exist in the all isolates; persistent mutations (yellow) are not in the progenitor, but found in all subsequent isolates after their first occurrence; transient mutations (pink) are not in the progenitor and only in some later isolates; recurrently polymorphic genes contain persistent mutations that occur in the same gene in more than one patient (black box). LOH events were also evaluated for persistence (light teal bar). Driver mutations, where a new persistent homozygous allele appears (e.g., G/T > A/A), are annotated in association with persistent LOH events (dark teal) and independent of these events (not shown). Each of these can be associated with a change in phenotype, such as drug resistance (boxes, right). (B) Sampling in the context of de novo mutation and selection bottlenecks. Each strain is a single clone (circle) isolated from an evolving population (represented by a phylogenetic tree). The population evolves and undergoes selective sweeps (dashed lines), with phenotypic changes occurring during the course of infection and treatment (i.e., drug resistance, black: high, white: low; gray scale at bottom). Persistent mutations (yellow lightning bolt) have likely swept through the population, whereas transient mutations (pink lightning bolt) have not. (C) Sampling in the context of selection on existing variation. Selection acts to vary the frequency of different pre-existing genotypes in the population. Persistent mutations (yellow lightning bolt) have risen in the population to a frequency that they are repeatedly sampled (large circles) whereas transient mutations (pink lightning bolt) have not (small circle).