1. Neuroscience
Download icon

Cerebellar modules operate at different frequencies

  1. Haibo Zhou
  2. Zhanmin Lin
  3. Kai Voges
  4. Chiheng Ju
  5. Zhenyu Gao
  6. Laurens WJ Bosman
  7. Tom JH Ruigrok
  8. Freek E Hoebeek
  9. Chris I De Zeeuw
  10. Martijn Schonewille  Is a corresponding author
  1. Erasmus MC, Netherlands
  2. Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Netherlands
Research Article
  • Cited 139
  • Views 4,413
  • Annotations
Cite this article as: eLife 2014;3:e02536 doi: 10.7554/eLife.02536

Abstract

Due to the uniform cyto-architecture of the cerebellar cortex, its overall physiological characteristics have traditionally been considered to be homogeneous. Here we show in awake mice at rest that spiking activity of Purkinje cells, the sole output cells of the cerebellar cortex, differs between cerebellar modules and correlates with their expression of the glycolytic enzyme aldolase C or zebrin. Simple spike and complex spike frequencies were significantly higher in Purkinje cells located in zebrin-negative than zebrin-positive modules. The difference in simple spike frequency persisted when the synaptic input to, but not intrinsic activity of, Purkinje cells was manipulated. Blocking TRPC3, the effector channel of a cascade of proteins that have zebrin-like distribution patterns, attenuated the simple spike frequency difference. Our results indicate that zebrin-discriminated cerebellar modules operate at different frequencies, which depends on activation of TRPC3, and that this property is relevant for all cerebellar functions.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Haibo Zhou

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Zhanmin Lin

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Kai Voges

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Chiheng Ju

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Zhenyu Gao

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  6. Laurens WJ Bosman

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  7. Tom JH Ruigrok

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  8. Freek E Hoebeek

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  9. Chris I De Zeeuw

    Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  10. Martijn Schonewille

    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands
    For correspondence
    m.schonewille@erasmusmc.nl
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: The experiments performed in this study were approved by the local animal ethical committee ("Dier Experimenten Commissie", DEC).

Reviewing Editor

  1. Dora E Angelaki, Baylor College of Medicine, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: February 13, 2014
  2. Accepted: May 3, 2014
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: May 7, 2014 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: June 10, 2014 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2014, Zhou et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

Metrics

  • 4,413
    Page views
  • 602
    Downloads
  • 139
    Citations

Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Scopus, Crossref, PubMed Central.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Further reading

    1. Neuroscience
    Catarina Albergaria, Megan R Carey
    Insight

    Although the wiring of the cerebellar cortex appears to be uniform, the neurons in this region of the brain behave more differently from each other than previously thought.

    1. Neuroscience
    Lihong Zhan et al.
    Research Article Updated

    Microglia are the resident myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The majority of microglia rely on CSF1R signaling for survival. However, a small subset of microglia in mouse brains can survive without CSF1R signaling and reestablish the microglial homeostatic population after CSF1R signaling returns. Using single-cell transcriptomic analysis, we characterized the heterogeneous microglial populations under CSF1R inhibition, including microglia with reduced homeostatic markers and elevated markers of inflammatory chemokines and proliferation. Importantly, MAC2/Lgals3 was upregulated under CSF1R inhibition, and shared striking similarities with microglial progenitors in the yolk sac and immature microglia in early embryos. Lineage-tracing studies revealed that these MAC2+ cells were of microglial origin. MAC2+ microglia were also present in non-treated adult mouse brains and exhibited immature transcriptomic signatures indistinguishable from those that survived CSF1R inhibition, supporting the notion that MAC2+ progenitor-like cells are present among adult microglia.