1. Epidemiology and Global Health
  2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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Global Distribution Maps of the Leishmaniases

  1. David M Pigott  Is a corresponding author
  2. Samir Bhatt
  3. Nick Golding
  4. Kirsten A Duda
  5. Katherine E Battle
  6. Oliver J Brady
  7. Jane P Messina
  8. Yves Balard
  9. Patrick Bastien
  10. Francine Pratlong
  11. John S Brownstein
  12. Clark Freifeld
  13. Sumiko R Mekaru
  14. Peter W Gething
  15. Dylan B George
  16. Monica F Myers
  17. Richard Reithinger
  18. Simon I Hay
  1. University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  2. UFR Médecine, Université Montpellier 1 and UMR 'MiVEGEC', CNRS 5290/IRD 224, France
  3. CHRU de Montpellier, Centre National de Référence des Leishmanioses, France
  4. Harvard Medical School, United States
  5. Boston University, United States
  6. Boston Children's Hospital, United States
  7. National Institutes of Health, United States
  8. RTI International, United States
Research Article
  • Cited 101
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Cite this article as: eLife 2014;3:e02851 doi: 10.7554/eLife.02851

Abstract

The leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that have a broad global distribution throughout much of the Americas, Africa and Asia. Despite representing a significant public health burden, our understanding of the global distribution of the leishmaniases remains vague, reliant upon expert opinion and limited to poor spatial resolution. A global assessment of the consensus of evidence for leishmaniasis was performed at a sub-national level by aggregating information from a variety of sources. A database of records of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis occurrence was compiled from published literature, online reports, strain archives and GenBank accessions. These, with a suite of biologically relevant environmental covariates, were used in a boosted regression tree modelling framework to generate global environmental risk maps for the leishmaniases. These high-resolution evidence-based maps can help direct future surveillance activities, identify areas to target for disease control and inform future burden estimation efforts.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. David M Pigott

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    For correspondence
    david.pigott@zoo.ox.ac.uk
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Samir Bhatt

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Nick Golding

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Kirsten A Duda

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Katherine E Battle

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  6. Oliver J Brady

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  7. Jane P Messina

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  8. Yves Balard

    UFR Médecine, Université Montpellier 1 and UMR 'MiVEGEC', CNRS 5290/IRD 224, Montpellier, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  9. Patrick Bastien

    CHRU de Montpellier, Centre National de Référence des Leishmanioses, Montpellier, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  10. Francine Pratlong

    CHRU de Montpellier, Centre National de Référence des Leishmanioses, Montpellier, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  11. John S Brownstein

    Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  12. Clark Freifeld

    Boston University, Boston, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  13. Sumiko R Mekaru

    Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  14. Peter W Gething

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  15. Dylan B George

    National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  16. Monica F Myers

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  17. Richard Reithinger

    RTI International, Washington DC, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  18. Simon I Hay

    University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Stephen Tollman, Wits University, South Africa

Publication history

  1. Received: March 23, 2014
  2. Accepted: June 26, 2014
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: June 27, 2014 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: July 22, 2014 (version 2)

Copyright

This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

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