A single, low dose of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine produces rapid antidepressant actions in treatment-resistant depressed patients. Understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this will lead to new therapies for treating major depression. NMDARs are heteromultimeric complexes formed through association of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits. We show that in vivo deletion of GluN2B, only from principal cortical neurons, mimics and occludes ketamine's actions on depression-like behavior and excitatory synaptic transmission. Furthermore, ketamine-induced increases in mTOR activation and synaptic protein synthesis were mimicked and occluded in 2B∆Ctx mice. We show here that cortical GluN2B-containing NMDARs are uniquely activated by ambient glutamate to regulate levels of excitatory synaptic transmission. Together these data predict a novel cellular mechanism that explains ketamine's rapid antidepressant actions. In this model, basal glutamatergic neurotransmission sensed by cortical GluN2B- containing NMDARs regulates excitatory synaptic strength in PFC determining basal levels of depression-like behavior.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of Tulane University (#0363R and 0364R).
- Gary L Westbrook, Vollum Institute, United States
© 2014, Miller et al.
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Megakaryocytes (MKs) continuously produce platelets to support hemostasis and form a niche for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance in the bone marrow. MKs are also involved in inflammatory responses; however, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Using single-cell sequencing, we identified a CXCR4 highly expressed MK subpopulation, which exhibited both MK-specific and immune characteristics. CXCR4high MKs interacted with myeloid cells to promote their migration and stimulate the bacterial phagocytosis of macrophages and neutrophils by producing TNFα and IL-6. CXCR4high MKs were also capable of phagocytosis, processing, and presenting antigens to activate T cells. Furthermore, CXCR4high MKs also egressed circulation and infiltrated into the spleen, liver, and lung upon bacterial infection. Ablation of MKs suppressed the innate immune response and T cell activation to impair the anti-bacterial effects in mice under the Listeria monocytogenes challenge. Using hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell lineage-tracing mouse lines, we show that CXCR4high MKs were generated from infection-induced emergency megakaryopoiesis in response to bacterial infection. Overall, we identify the CXCR4high MKs, which regulate host-defense immune response against bacterial infection.
Deciphering mechanisms controlling SNARE localization within the Golgi complex is crucial to understanding protein trafficking patterns within the secretory pathway. SNAREs are also thought to prime coatomer protein I (COPI) assembly to ensure incorporation of these essential cargoes into vesicles, but the regulation of these events is poorly understood. Here, we report roles for ubiquitin recognition by COPI in SNARE trafficking and in stabilizing interactions between Arf, COPI, and Golgi SNAREs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ability of COPI to bind ubiquitin, but not the dilysine motif, through its N-terminal WD repeat domain of β′-COP or through an unrelated ubiquitin-binding domain is essential for the proper localization of Golgi SNAREs Bet1 and Gos1. We find that COPI, the ArfGAP Glo3, and multiple Golgi SNAREs are ubiquitinated. Notably, the binding of Arf and COPI to Gos1 is markedly enhanced by ubiquitination of these components. Glo3 is proposed to prime COPI–SNARE interactions; however, Glo3 is not enriched in the ubiquitin-stabilized SNARE–Arf–COPI complex but is instead enriched with COPI complexes that lack SNAREs. These results support a new model for how posttranslational modifications drive COPI priming events crucial for Golgi SNARE localization.