The general translation initiation factor eIF2 is a major translational control point. Multiple signaling pathways in the integrated stress response phosphorylate eIF2 serine-51, inhibiting nucleotide exchange by eIF2B. ISRIB, a potent drug-like small molecule, renders cells insensitive to eIF2α phosphorylation and enhances cognitive function in rodents by blocking long-term depression. ISRIB was identified in a phenotypic cell-based screen, and its mechanism of action remained unknown. We now report that ISRIB is an activator of eIF2B. Our reporter-based shRNA screen revealed an eIF2B requirement for ISRIB activity. Our results define ISRIB as a symmetric molecule, show ISRIB-mediated stabilization of activated eIF2B dimers, and suggest that eIF2B4 (δ-subunit) contributes to the ISRIB binding site. We also developed new ISRIB analogs, improving its EC50 to 600 pM in cell culture. By modulating eIF2B function, ISRIB promises to be an invaluable tool in proof-of-principle studies aiming to ameliorate cognitive defects resulting from neurodegenerative diseases.
- Carmela Sidrauski
- Jordan C Tsai
- Martin Kampmann
- Aaron S Mendez
- Jonathan S Weissman
- Peter Walter
The funder had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jeffery W Kelly, Scripps Research Institute, United States
© 2015, Sidrauski et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
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Serotonin receptors (5-HT3AR) play a crucial role in regulating gut movement, and are the principal target of setrons, a class of high-affinity competitive antagonists, used in the management of nausea and vomiting associated with radiation and chemotherapies. Structural insights into setron-binding poses and their inhibitory mechanisms are just beginning to emerge. Here, we present high-resolution cryo-EM structures of full-length 5-HT3AR in complex with palonosetron, ondansetron, and alosetron. Molecular dynamic simulations of these structures embedded in a fully-hydrated lipid environment assessed the stability of ligand-binding poses and drug-target interactions over time. Together with simulation results of apo- and serotonin-bound 5-HT3AR, the study reveals a distinct interaction fingerprint between the various setrons and binding-pocket residues that may underlie their diverse affinities. In addition, varying degrees of conformational change in the setron-5-HT3AR structures, throughout the channel and particularly along the channel activation pathway, suggests a novel mechanism of competitive inhibition.
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