1. Neuroscience
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Prediction Error: The expanding role of dopamine

  1. Bradley B Doll
  2. Nathaniel D Daw  Is a corresponding author
  1. Center for Neural Science, New York University, United States
  2. Princeton University, United States
Cite this article as: eLife 2016;5:e15963 doi: 10.7554/eLife.15963
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The activity of dopaminergic neurons helps rats to integrate separate experiences to predict when a reward will be given.

(A) Schematic of the task used by Sadacca et al. In the pre-conditioning phase, rats learn to associate a clicker with a tone. In a subsequent conditioning phase, the rats learn to link the tone with a food reward. In the final test phase, the rats hear the clicker, and behave as if they expect a reward. (B) Three potential associative retrieval mechanisms that might support integrative inference about the stimulus. Left: during the conditioning phase, presenting the tone could call the clicker to mind, allowing both stimuli to be linked to a reward. Middle: after conditioning, the mental replay of experiences may permit the relationships between separate sets of stimuli to be learned. Right: in the test phase, the rats may make new inferences that cause the rats to expect a reward when they hear the clicker.

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