FOXC1 loss contributes to Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM), a common human cerebellar malformation. Previously we found that complete Foxc1 loss leads to aberrations in proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration in the embryonic mouse cerebellum (Haldipur et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that hypomorphic Foxc1 mutant mice have granule and Purkinje cell abnormalities causing subsequent disruptions in postnatal cerebellar foliation and lamination. Particularly striking is the presence of a partially formed posterior lobule echoing the posterior vermis DW "tail sign" observed in human imaging studies. Lineage tracing experiments in Foxc1 mutant mouse cerebella indicate aberrant migration of granule cell progenitors destined to form the posterior-most lobule causes this unique phenotype. Analyses of rare human del chr 6p25 fetal cerebella demonstrate extensive phenotypic overlap with our Foxc1 mutant mouse models, validating our DWM models and demonstrating that many key mechanisms controlling cerebellar development are likely conserved between mouse and human.
- Kathleen J Millen
- Kathleen J Millen
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal experimentation for this study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC Protocol no 14208), of Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA..
Human subjects: All human studies were approved by Institutional Review Boards at all participating institutions. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects.
- Robb Krumlauf, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, United States
© 2017, Haldipur et al.
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In vitro fertilization (IVF) has resulted in the birth of over 8 million children. Although most IVF-conceived children are healthy, several studies suggest an increased risk of altered growth rate, cardiovascular dysfunction, and glucose intolerance in this population compared to naturally conceived children. However, a clear understanding of how embryonic metabolism is affected by culture condition and how embryos reprogram their metabolism is unknown. Here, we studied oxidative stress and metabolic alteration in blastocysts conceived by natural mating or by IVF and cultured in physiologic (5%) or atmospheric (20%) oxygen. We found that IVF-generated blastocysts manifest increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage to DNA/lipid/proteins, and reduction in glutathione. Metabolic analysis revealed IVF-generated blastocysts display decreased mitochondria respiration and increased glycolytic activity suggestive of enhanced Warburg metabolism. These findings were corroborated by altered intracellular and extracellular pH and increased intracellular lactate levels in IVF-generated embryos. Comprehensive proteomic analysis and targeted immunofluorescence showed reduction of lactate dehydrogenase-B and monocarboxylate transporter 1, enzymes involved in lactate metabolism. Importantly, these enzymes remained downregulated in the tissues of adult IVF-conceived mice, suggesting that metabolic alterations in IVF-generated embryos may result in alteration in lactate metabolism. These findings suggest that alterations in lactate metabolism are a likely mechanism involved in genomic reprogramming and could be involved in the developmental origin of health and disease.
Morphogenetic events during development of the fetal ovary are crucial to the establishment of female fertility. However, the effects of structural rearrangements of the ovary and surrounding reproductive tissues on ovary morphogenesis remain largely uncharacterized. Using tissue clearing and lightsheet microscopy, we found that ovary folding correlated with regionalization into cortex and medulla. Relocation of the oviduct to the ventral aspect of the ovary led to ovary encapsulation, and mutual attachment of the ovary and oviduct to the cranial suspensory ligament likely triggered ovary folding. During this process, the rete ovarii elaborated into a convoluted tubular structure extending from the ovary into the ovarian capsule. Using genetic mouse models in which the oviduct and rete ovarii are perturbed, we found the oviduct is required for ovary encapsulation. This study reveals novel relationships among the ovary and surrounding tissues and paves the way for functional investigation of the relationship between architecture and differentiation of the mammalian ovary.