The similarity of eukaryotic actin to crenactin, a filament-forming protein from the crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis supports the theory of a common origin of Crenarchaea and Eukaryotes. Monomeric structures of crenactin and actin are similar, although their filament architectures were suggested to be different. Here we report that crenactin forms bona fide double helical filaments that show exceptional similarity to eukaryotic F-actin. With cryo-electron microscopy and helical reconstruction we solved the structure of the crenactin filament to 3.8 Å resolution. When forming double filaments, the 'hydrophobic plug' loop in crenactin rearranges. Arcadin-2, also encoded by the arcade gene cluster, binds tightly with its C-terminus to the hydrophobic groove of crenactin. Binding is reminiscent of eukaryotic actin modulators such as cofilin and thymosin β4 and arcadin-2 is a depolymeriser of crenactin filaments. Our work further supports the theory of shared ancestry of Eukaryotes and Crenarchaea.
- Danguole Kureisaite-Ciziene
- Stephen H McLaughlin
- Jan Löwe
- Thierry Izoré
- Jan Löwe
- Thierry Izoré
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Werner Kühlbrandt, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Germany
© 2016, Izoré et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Phosphorylation and acetylation of sarcomeric proteins are important for fine-tuning myocardial contractility. Here, we used bottom-up proteomics and label-free quantification to identify novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) on β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) in normal and failing human heart tissues. We report six acetylated lysines and two phosphorylated residues: K34-Ac, K58-Ac, S210-P, K213-Ac, T215-P, K429-Ac, K951-Ac, and K1195-Ac. K951-Ac was significantly reduced in both ischemic and nonischemic failing hearts compared to nondiseased hearts. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that K951-Ac may impact stability of thick filament tail interactions and ultimately myosin head positioning. K58-Ac altered the solvent-exposed SH3 domain surface – known for protein–protein interactions – but did not appreciably change motor domain conformation or dynamics under conditions studied. Together, K213-Ac/T215-P altered loop 1’s structure and dynamics – known to regulate ADP-release, ATPase activity, and sliding velocity. Our study suggests that β-MHC acetylation levels may be influenced more by the PTM location than the type of heart disease since less protected acetylation sites are reduced in both heart failure groups. Additionally, these PTMs have potential to modulate interactions between β-MHC and other regulatory sarcomeric proteins, ADP-release rate of myosin, flexibility of the S2 region, and cardiac myofilament contractility in normal and failing hearts.
Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule (MT)-associated protein that regulates MT structure and function during neuronal development and mutations in DCX lead to a spectrum of neurological disorders. The structural properties of MT-bound DCX that explain these disorders are incompletely determined. Here, we describe the molecular architecture of the DCX–MT complex through an integrative modeling approach that combines data from X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, and a high-fidelity chemical crosslinking method. We demonstrate that DCX interacts with MTs through its N-terminal domain and induces a lattice-dependent self-association involving the C-terminal structured domain and its disordered tail, in a conformation that favors an open, domain-swapped state. The networked state can accommodate multiple different attachment points on the MT lattice, all of which orient the C-terminal tails away from the lattice. As numerous disease mutations cluster in the C-terminus, and regulatory phosphorylations cluster in its tail, our study shows that lattice-driven self-assembly is an important property of DCX.