DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by either recombination-based or direct ligation-based mechanisms. Pathway choice is made at the level of DNA end resection, a nucleolytic processing step, which primes DSBs for repair by recombination. Resection is thus under cell cycle control, but additionally regulated by chromatin and nucleosome remodellers. Here we show that both layers of control converge in the regulation of resection by the evolutionarily conserved Fun30/SMARCAD1 remodeller. Yeast Fun30 and human SMARCAD1 are cell cycle-regulated by interaction with the DSB-localized scaffold proteins Dpb11 and TOPBP1, respectively. In yeast this protein assembly additionally comprises the 9-1-1 damage sensor, is involved in localizing Fun30 to damaged chromatin and thus is required for efficient long-range resection of DSBs. Notably, artificial targeting of Fun30 to DSBs is sufficient to bypass the cell cycle regulation of long-range resection, indicating that chromatin remodelling during resection is underlying DSB repair pathway choice.
- Boris Pfander
- Boris Pfander
- Susanne CS Bantele
- Dominik Boos
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Gregory Ira, Baylor College of Medicine, United States
© 2017, Bantele et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Dynamic Ca2+ signals reflect acute changes in membrane excitability (e.g. responses to stimuli), and also mediate intracellular signaling cascades that normally take longer time to manifest (e.g., regulations of transcription). In both cases, chronic Ca2+ imaging has been often desired, but largely hindered by unexpected cytotoxicity intrinsic to GCaMP, a popular series of genetically-encoded Ca2+ indicators. Here, we demonstrate the performance of GCaMP-X in chronic Ca2+ imaging with long-term probe expression in cortical neurons, which has been designed to eliminate the unwanted interactions between conventional GCaMP indicators and endogenous (apo)calmodulin-binding proteins. By expressing in live adult mice at high levels over an extended time frame, GCaMP-X indicators showed less damage and improved performance in two-photon imaging of acute Ca2+ responses to whisker deflection or spontaneous Ca2+ fluctuations. Chronic Ca2+ imaging data (³1 month) were acquired from cultured cortical neurons expressing GCaMP-X, unveiling that spontaneous/local Ca2+ transients would progressively develop into autonomous/global Ca2+ oscillations. Besides the morphological indices of neurite length and soma size, the major metrics of oscillatory Ca2+, including rate, amplitude and synchrony were also examined along with the multiple stages (from neonatal to mature) during neural development. Dysregulations of both neuritogenesis and Ca2+ oscillations were observed typically in 2-3 weeks, which were exacerbated by stronger or prolonged expression of GCaMP. In comparison, neurons expressing GCaMP-X exhibited significantly less damage. By varying the timepoints of virus infection or drug induction, GCaMP-X outperformed GCaMP similarly in cultured mature neurons. These data altogether highlight the unique importance of oscillatory Ca2+ to morphology and health of neurons, presumably underlying the differential performance between GCaMP-X and GCaMP. In summary, GCaMP-X provides a viable option for Ca2+ imaging applications involving long-time and/or high-level expression of Ca2+ probes.
Sphingomyelin is a dominant sphingolipid in mammalian cells. Its production in the trans-Golgi traps cholesterol synthesized in the ER to promote formation of a sphingomyelin/sterol gradient along the secretory pathway. This gradient marks a fundamental transition in physical membrane properties that help specify organelle identify and function. We previously identified mutations in sphingomyelin synthase SMS2 that cause osteoporosis and skeletal dysplasia. Here, we show that SMS2 variants linked to the most severe bone phenotypes retain full enzymatic activity but fail to leave the ER owing to a defective autonomous ER export signal. Cells harboring pathogenic SMS2 variants accumulate sphingomyelin in the ER and display a disrupted transbilayer sphingomyelin asymmetry. These aberrant sphingomyelin distributions also occur in patient-derived fibroblasts and are accompanied by imbalances in cholesterol organization, glycerophospholipid profiles, and lipid order in the secretory pathway. We postulate that pathogenic SMS2 variants undermine the capacity of osteogenic cells to uphold nonrandom lipid distributions that are critical for their bone forming activity.