Long-range cis-regulatory elements such as enhancers coordinate cell-specific transcriptional programmes by engaging in DNA looping interactions with target promoters. Deciphering the interplay between the promoter connectivity and activity of cis-regulatory elements during lineage commitment is crucial for understanding developmental transcriptional control. Here, we use Promoter Capture Hi-C to generate a high-resolution atlas of chromosomal interactions involving ~22,000 gene promoters in human pluripotent and lineage-committed cells, identifying putative target genes for known and predicted enhancer elements. We reveal extensive dynamics of cis-regulatory contacts upon lineage commitment, including the acquisition and loss of promoter interactions. This spatial rewiring occurs preferentially with predicted changes in the activity of cis-regulatory elements, and is associated with changes in target gene expression. Our results provide a global and integrated view of promoter interactome dynamics during lineage commitment of human pluripotent cells.
Global rewiring of cis-regulatory units upon lineage commitment of human embryonic stem cellsPublicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no: GSE76626).
Global rewiring of cis-regulatory units upon lineage commitment of human embryonic stem cellsPublicly available via the Open Science Framework.
A unique chromatin signature uncovers early developmental enhancers in humansPublicly available at the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (accession no: GSE24447).
- Peter J Rugg-Gunn
- Paula Freire-Pritchett
- Stefan Schoenfelder
- Csilla Várnai
- Steven W Wingett
- Jonathan Cairns
- Mayra Furlan-Magaril
- Peter J Fraser
- Mikhail Spivakov
- Amanda J Collier
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Job Dekker, University of Massachusetts Medical School, United States
© 2017, Freire-Pritchett et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide due to the inability of adult heart to regenerate after injury. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation catalyzed by the enzyme methyltransferase-like 3 (Mettl3) plays an important role in various physiological and pathological bioprocesses. However, the role of m6A in heart regeneration remains largely unclear. To study m6A function in heart regeneration, we modulated Mettl3 expression in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of Mettl3 significantly increased the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and accelerated heart regeneration following heart injury in neonatal and adult mice. However, Mettl3 overexpression decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation and suppressed heart regeneration in postnatal mice. Conjoint analysis of methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) and RNA-seq identified Fgf16 as a downstream target of Mettl3-mediated m6A modification during postnatal heart regeneration. RIP-qPCR and luciferase reporter assays revealed that Mettl3 negatively regulates Fgf16 mRNA expression in an m6A-Ythdf2-dependent manner. The silencing of Fgf16 suppressed the proliferation of cardiomyocytes. However, the overexpression of ΔFgf16, in which the m6A consensus sequence was mutated, significantly increased cardiomyocyte proliferation and accelerated heart regeneration in postnatal mice compared with wild-type Fgf16. Our data demonstrate that Mettl3 post-transcriptionally reduces Fgf16 mRNA levels through an m6A-Ythdf2-dependen pathway, thereby controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration.
Alternative splicing expands the transcriptome and proteome complexity and plays essential roles in tissue development and human diseases. However, how alternative splicing regulates spermatogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, using a germ cell-specific knockout mouse model, we demonstrated that the splicing factor Srsf10 is essential for spermatogenesis and male fertility. In the absence of SRSF10, spermatogonial stem cells can be formed, but the expansion of Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF)-positive undifferentiated progenitors was impaired, followed by the failure of spermatogonia differentiation (marked by KIT expression) and meiosis initiation. This was further evidenced by the decreased expression of progenitor cell markers in bulk RNA-seq, and much less progenitor and differentiating spermatogonia in single-cell RNA-seq data. Notably, SRSF10 directly binds thousands of genes in isolated THY+ spermatogonia, and Srsf10 depletion disturbed the alternative splicing of genes that are preferentially associated with germ cell development, cell cycle, and chromosome segregation, including Nasp, Bclaf1, Rif1, Dazl, Kit, Ret, and Sycp1. These data suggest that SRSF10 is critical for the expansion of undifferentiated progenitors by regulating alternative splicing, expanding our understanding of the mechanism underlying spermatogenesis.