1. Immunology and Inflammation
  2. Neuroscience
Download icon

Peptidoglycan sensing by octopaminergic neurons modulates Drosophila oviposition

  1. C Leopold kurz
  2. Bernard Charroux
  3. Delphine Chaduli
  4. Annelise Viallat-Lieutaud
  5. Julien Royet  Is a corresponding author
  1. Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7288, Institut de Biologie du Développement de Marseille, France
Research Article
  • Cited 25
  • Views 2,961
  • Annotations
Cite this article as: eLife 2017;6:e21937 doi: 10.7554/eLife.21937

Abstract

As infectious diseases pose a threat to host integrity, eukaryotes have evolved mechanisms to eliminate pathogens. In addition to develop strategies reducing infection, animals can engage in behaviours that lower the impact of the infection. The molecular mechanisms by which microbes impact host behaviour are not well understood. We demonstrate that bacterial infection of Drosophila females reduces oviposition and that peptidoglycan, the component that activates Drosophila antibacterial response, is also the elicitor of this behavioral change. We show that peptidoglycan regulates egg laying rate by activating NF-B signaling pathway in octopaminergic neurons and that, a dedicated peptidoglycan degrading enzyme acts in these neurons to buffer this behavioural response. This study shows that a unique ligand and signaling cascade are used in immune cells to mount an immune response and in neurons to control fly behavior following infection. This may represent a case of behavioural immunity.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. C Leopold kurz

    Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7288, Institut de Biologie du Développement de Marseille, Marseilles, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Bernard Charroux

    Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7288, Institut de Biologie du Développement de Marseille, Mraseille, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Delphine Chaduli

    Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7288, Institut de Biologie du Développement de Marseille, Marseille, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Annelise Viallat-Lieutaud

    Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7288, Institut de Biologie du Développement de Marseille, Mraseille, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Julien Royet

    Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7288, Institut de Biologie du Développement de Marseille, Marseilles, France
    For correspondence
    julien.royet@univ-amu.fr
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-5671-4833

Funding

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (24567)

  • Julien Royet

Equipe Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (DEQ20140329541)

  • Julien Royet

Investissements d'avenir-Labex INFORM (ANR-11-LABx-0054)

  • Julien Royet

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Mani Ramaswami, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

Publication history

  1. Received: September 29, 2016
  2. Accepted: February 26, 2017
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: March 7, 2017 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: March 24, 2017 (version 2)

Copyright

This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.

Metrics

  • 2,961
    Page views
  • 640
    Downloads
  • 25
    Citations

Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Scopus, Crossref, PubMed Central.

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)

Further reading

    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    Dennis V Pedersen et al.
    Research Article

    Properdin stabilizes convertases formed upon activation of the complement cascade within the immune system. The biological activity of properdin depends on the oligomerization state, but whether properdin oligomers are rigid and how their structure links to function remains unknown. We show by combining electron microscopy and solution scattering, that properdin oligomers adopt extended rigid and well-defined conformations that are well approximated by single models of apparent n-fold rotational symmetry with dimensions of 230-360 Å. Properdin monomers are pretzel shaped molecules with limited flexibility. In solution, properdin dimers are curved molecules whereas trimers and tetramers are close to being planar molecules. Structural analysis indicates that simultaneous binding through all binding sites to surface linked convertases is unlikely for properdin trimer and tetramers. We show that multivalency alone is insufficient for full activity in a cell lysis assay. Hence, the observed rigid extended oligomer structure is an integral component of properdin function.

    1. Cell Biology
    2. Immunology and Inflammation
    Moosung Lee et al.
    Research Article Updated

    The immunological synapse (IS) is a cell-cell junction between a T cell and a professional antigen-presenting cell. Since the IS formation is a critical step for the initiation of an antigen-specific immune response, various live-cell imaging techniques, most of which rely on fluorescence microscopy, have been used to study the dynamics of IS. However, the inherent limitations associated with the fluorescence-based imaging, such as photo-bleaching and photo-toxicity, prevent the long-term assessment of dynamic changes of IS with high frequency. Here, we propose and experimentally validate a label-free, volumetric, and automated assessment method for IS dynamics using a combinational approach of optical diffraction tomography and deep learning-based segmentation. The proposed method enables an automatic and quantitative spatiotemporal analysis of IS kinetics of morphological and biochemical parameters associated with IS dynamics, providing a new option for immunological research.