1. Immunology and Inflammation
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IL17 factors are early regulators in the gut epithelium during inflammatory response to Vibrio in the sea urchin larva

  1. Katherine M Buckley  Is a corresponding author
  2. Eric Chun Hei Ho
  3. Taku Hibino
  4. Catherine S Schrankel
  5. Nicholas W Schuh
  6. Guizhi Wang
  7. Jonathan Patrick Rast  Is a corresponding author
  1. The George Washington University, United States
  2. Sunnybrook Research Institute, Canada
  3. Saitama University, Japan
  4. University of Toronto, Canada
Research Article
  • Cited 24
  • Views 1,540
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Cite this article as: eLife 2017;6:e23481 doi: 10.7554/eLife.23481

Abstract

IL17 cytokines are central mediators of mammalian immunity. In vertebrates, these factors derive from diverse cellular sources. Sea urchins share a molecular heritage with chordates that includes the IL17 system. Here, we characterize the role of epithelial expression of IL17 in the larval gut-associated immune response. The purple sea urchin genome encodes ten IL17 subfamilies (35 genes) and two IL17 receptors. Most of these subfamilies are conserved throughout echinoderms. Two IL17 subfamilies are sequentially strongly upregulated and attenuated in the gut epithelium in response to bacterial disturbance. IL17R1 signal perturbation results in reduced expression of several response genes including an IL17 subtype, indicating a potential feedback. A third IL17 subfamily is activated in adult immune cells indicating that expression in immune cells and epithelia is divided among families. The larva provides a tractable model to investigate the regulation and consequences of gut epithelial IL17 expression across the organism.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Katherine M Buckley

    The George Washington University, Washington, D.C., United States
    For correspondence
    kshank@email.gwu.edu
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-6585-8943
  2. Eric Chun Hei Ho

    Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Taku Hibino

    Faculty of Education, Saitama University, Saitama, Japan
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Catherine S Schrankel

    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Nicholas W Schuh

    Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  6. Guizhi Wang

    Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  7. Jonathan Patrick Rast

    Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    For correspondence
    jrast@sri.utoronto.ca
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0001-6494-0403

Funding

Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP74667)

  • Jonathan Patrick Rast

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (312221)

  • Jonathan Patrick Rast

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: All animal care and use protocols were approved by the Sunnybrook Research Institute Animal Care Committee

Reviewing Editor

  1. Sarah Gaffen

Publication history

  1. Received: November 19, 2016
  2. Accepted: April 25, 2017
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: April 27, 2017 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: June 2, 2017 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2017, Buckley et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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  1. Further reading

Further reading

  1. The sea urchin may be a good model for understanding how immune responses work in humans and other vertebrates.

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