Development of stomata, valves on the plant epidermis for optimal gas exchange and water control, is fine-tuned by multiple signaling peptides with unique, overlapping, or antagonistic activities. EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR1 (EPF1) is a founding member of the secreted peptide ligands enforcing stomatal patterning. Yet, its exact role remains unclear. Here, we report that EPF1 and its primary receptor ERECTA-LIKE1 (ERL1) target MUTE, a transcription factor specifying the proliferation-to-differentiation switch within the stomatal cell lineages. In turn, MUTE directly induces ERL1. The absolute co-expression of ERL1 and MUTE, with the co-presence of EPF1, triggers autocrine inhibition of stomatal fate. During normal stomatal development, this autocrine inhibition prevents extra symmetric divisions of stomatal precursors likely owing to excessive MUTE activity. Our study reveals the unexpected role of self-inhibition as a mechanism for ensuring proper stomatal development and suggests an intricate signal buffering mechanism underlying plant tissue patterning.
- Keiko U Torii
- Keiko U Torii
- Keiko U Torii
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Sheila McCormick, University of California-Berkeley, United States
© 2017, Qi et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Animal migration is highly sensitised to environmental cues, but plant dispersal is considered largely passive. The common dandelion, Taraxacum officinale, bears an intricate haired pappus facilitating flight. The pappus enables the formation of a separated vortex ring during flight; however, the pappus structure is not static but reversibly changes shape by closing in response to moisture. We hypothesised that this leads to changed dispersal properties in response to environmental conditions. Using wind tunnel experiments for flow visualisation, particle image velocimetry, and flight tests, we characterised the fluid mechanics effects of the pappus morphing. We also modelled dispersal to understand the impact of pappus morphing on diaspore distribution. Pappus morphing dramatically alters the fluid mechanics of diaspore flight. We found that when the pappus closes in moist conditions, the drag coefficient decreases and thus the falling velocity is greatly increased. Detachment of diaspores from the parent plant also substantially decreases. The change in detachment when the pappus closes increases dispersal distances by reducing diaspore release when wind speeds are low. We propose that moisture-dependent pappus-morphing is a form of informed dispersal allowing rapid responses to changing conditions.
Grass stomata recruit lateral subsidiary cells (SCs), which are key to the unique stomatal morphology and the efficient plant-atmosphere gas exchange in grasses. Subsidiary mother cells (SMCs) strongly polarise before an asymmetric division forms a SC. Yet apart from a proximal polarity module that includes PANGLOSS1 (PAN1) and guides nuclear migration, little is known regarding the developmental processes that form SCs. Here, we used comparative transcriptomics of developing wild-type and SC-less bdmute leaves in the genetic model grass Brachypodium distachyon to identify novel factors involved in SC formation. This approach revealed BdPOLAR, which forms a novel, distal polarity domain in SMCs that is opposite to the proximal PAN1 domain. Both polarity domains are required for the formative SC division yet exhibit various roles in guiding pre-mitotic nuclear migration and SMC division plane orientation, respectively. Nonetheless, the domains are linked as the proximal domain controls polarisation of the distal domain. In summary, we identified two opposing polarity domains that coordinate the SC division, a process crucial for grass stomatal physiology.