Brain schemas in (a–c) show: cerebellum (Cb), auditory field L (L2), striatum (St), and song control nuclei Area X (X) and lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). Section planes are shown as dashed orange lines. (a & b) Bright yellow areas represent the Statistical Parametric Map (SPM, intensity threshold at t ≥ 2) for averaged [11C]raclopride binding potential in males (a) and females (b) (n = 8 in both groups). SPM is shown over the brain template magnetic-resonance image. In both males and females [11C]raclopride binding was restricted to the striatum. (c) SPM of the difference in dopamine neurotransmission as detected by [11C]raclopride binding in song and silence conditions in males. SPM reveals significantly lower level of [11C]raclopride binding in response to hearing novel conspecific songs in males (pair-wise t statistic, cluster-level pcorrected = 0.024), which indicates higher dopamine neurotransmission in this condition. Significant difference was detected in one cluster within the dorsal striatum, mostly outside Area X. (d) Analysis of individual changes in [11C]raclopride binding in males, comparing song vs. silence. (e) Same for females. As no significant cluster was found in females, males’ cluster was used as a mask to produce individual values of [11C]raclopride binding within the same area.