Shigella entry unveils a calcium/calpain-dependent mechanism for inhibiting sumoylation

Abstract

Disruption of the sumoylation/desumoylation equilibrium is associated with several disease states such as cancer and infections, however the mechanisms regulating the global SUMO balance remain poorly defined. Here, we show that infection by Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, switches off host sumoylation during epithelial cell infection in vitro and in vivo and that this effect is mainly mediated by a calcium/calpain-induced cleavage of the SUMO E1 enzyme SAE2, thus leading to sumoylation inhibition. Furthermore, we describe a mechanism by which Shigella promotes its own invasion by altering the sumoylation state of RhoGDIa, a master negative regulator of RhoGTPase activity and actin polymerization. Together, our data suggest that SUMO modification is essential to restrain pathogenic bacterial entry by limiting cytoskeletal rearrangement induced by bacterial effectors. Moreover, these findings identify calcium-activated calpains as powerful modulators of cellular sumoylation levels with potentially broad implications in several physiological and pathological situations.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Pierre Lapaquette

    Nuclear Organization and Oncogenesis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Sabrina Fritah

    Nuclear Organization and Oncogenesis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Nouara Lhocine

    Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  4. Alexandra Andrieux

    Nuclear Organization and Oncogenesis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  5. Giulia Nigro

    Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  6. Joëlle Mounier

    Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  7. Philippe Sansonetti

    Unité de Pathogénie Microbienne Moléculaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  8. Anne Dejean

    Nuclear Organization and Oncogenesis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    For correspondence
    anne.dejean@pasteur.fr
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0003-4778-6840

Funding

Ligue Contre le Cancer (Post-doc fellowship to P. Lapaquette and labelled team to A. Dejean)

  • Pierre Lapaquette
  • Anne Dejean

Institut Pasteur

  • Philippe Sansonetti
  • Anne Dejean

Institut National Du Cancer

  • Anne Dejean

European Research Council (SUMOSTRESS)

  • Anne Dejean

Sidaction

  • Sabrina Fritah

Odyssey RE

  • Anne Dejean

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale

  • Philippe Sansonetti
  • Anne Dejean

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: Animal experiments were performed accordingly to the guidelines of the Institut Pasteur's ethical committee for animal use in research (CETEA number 2013-0028).

Reviewing Editor

  1. Dominique Soldati-Favre, University of Geneva, Switzerland

Publication history

  1. Received: April 6, 2017
  2. Accepted: December 11, 2017
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: December 12, 2017 (version 1)
  4. Accepted Manuscript updated: December 13, 2017 (version 2)
  5. Accepted Manuscript updated: December 14, 2017 (version 3)
  6. Version of Record published: December 27, 2017 (version 4)

Copyright

© 2017, Lapaquette et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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  1. Pierre Lapaquette
  2. Sabrina Fritah
  3. Nouara Lhocine
  4. Alexandra Andrieux
  5. Giulia Nigro
  6. Joëlle Mounier
  7. Philippe Sansonetti
  8. Anne Dejean
(2017)
Shigella entry unveils a calcium/calpain-dependent mechanism for inhibiting sumoylation
eLife 6:e27444.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27444

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    Background:

    Patients with cardiomyopathy of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) are at risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias, but the mechanisms are unknown. We aimed to determine the role of ion channels controlling cardiac excitability in the mechanisms of arrhythmias in DMD patients.

    Methods:

    To test whether dystrophin mutations lead to defective cardiac NaV1.5–Kir2.1 channelosomes and arrhythmias, we generated iPSC-CMs from two hemizygous DMD males, a heterozygous female, and two unrelated control males. We conducted studies including confocal microscopy, protein expression analysis, patch-clamping, non-viral piggy-bac gene expression, optical mapping and contractility assays.

    Results:

    Two patients had abnormal ECGs with frequent runs of ventricular tachycardia. iPSC-CMs from all DMD patients showed abnormal action potential profiles, slowed conduction velocities, and reduced sodium (INa) and inward rectifier potassium (IK1) currents. Membrane NaV1.5 and Kir2.1 protein levels were reduced in hemizygous DMD iPSC-CMs but not in heterozygous iPSC-CMs. Remarkably, transfecting just one component of the dystrophin protein complex (α1-syntrophin) in hemizygous iPSC-CMs from one patient restored channelosome function, INa and IK1 densities, and action potential profile in single cells. In addition, α1-syntrophin expression restored impulse conduction and contractility and prevented reentrant arrhythmias in hiPSC-CM monolayers.

    Conclusions:

    We provide the first demonstration that iPSC-CMs reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of DMD patients with cardiomyopathy have a dysfunction of the NaV1.5–Kir2.1 channelosome, with consequent reduction of cardiac excitability and conduction. Altogether, iPSC-CMs from patients with DMD cardiomyopathy have a NaV1.5–Kir2.1 channelosome dysfunction, which can be rescued by the scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin to restore excitability and prevent arrhythmias.

    Funding:

    Supported by National Institutes of Health R01 HL122352 grant; ‘la Caixa’ Banking Foundation (HR18-00304); Fundación La Marató TV3: Ayudas a la investigación en enfermedades raras 2020 (LA MARATO-2020); Instituto de Salud Carlos III/FEDER/FSE; Horizon 2020 - Research and Innovation Framework Programme GA-965286 to JJ; the CNIC is supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN) and the Pro CNIC Foundation), and is a Severo Ochoa Center of Excellence (grant CEX2020-001041-S funded by MICIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033). American Heart Association postdoctoral fellowship 19POST34380706s to JVEN. Israel Science Foundation to OB and MA [824/19]. Rappaport grant [01012020RI]; and Niedersachsen Foundation [ZN3452] to OB; US-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF) to OB and TH [2019039]; Dr. Bernard Lublin Donation to OB; and The Duchenne Parent Project Netherlands (DPPNL 2029771) to OB. National Institutes of Health R01 AR068428 to DM and US-Israel Binational Science Foundation Grant [2013032] to DM and OB.