We present in vivo single-cell FRET measurements in the Escherichia coli chemotaxis system that reveal pervasive signaling variability, both across cells in isogenic populations and within individual cells over time. We quantify cell-to-cell variability of adaptation, ligand response, as well as steady-state output level, and analyze the role of network design in shaping this diversity from gene expression noise. In the absence of changes in gene expression, we find that single cells demonstrate strong temporal fluctuations. We provide evidence that such signaling noise can arise from at least two sources: (i) stochastic activities of adaptation enzymes, and (ii) receptor-kinase dynamics in the absence of adaptation. We demonstrate that under certain conditions, (ii) can generate giant fluctuations that drive signaling activity of the entire cell into a stochastic two-state switching regime. Our findings underscore the importance of molecular noise, arising not only in gene expression but also in protein networks.
- Thomas S Shimizu
- Thomas S Shimizu
- Thierry Emonet
- Thomas S Shimizu
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Naama Barkai, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
© 2017, Keegstra et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Human and animal EEG data demonstrate that focal seizures start with low-voltage fast activity, evolve into rhythmic burst discharges and are followed by a period of suppressed background activity. This suggests that processes with dynamics in the range of tens of seconds govern focal seizure evolution. We investigate the processes associated with seizure dynamics by complementing the Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model with the physical laws that dictate ion movement and maintain ionic gradients. Our biophysically realistic computational model closely replicates the electrographic pattern of a typical human focal seizure characterized by low voltage fast activity onset, tonic phase, clonic phase and postictal suppression. Our study demonstrates, for the first time in silico, the potential mechanism of seizure initiation by inhibitory interneurons via the initial build-up of extracellular K+ due to intense interneuronal spiking. The model also identifies ionic mechanisms that may underlie a key feature in seizure dynamics, that is, progressive slowing down of ictal discharges towards the end of seizure. Our model prediction of specific scaling of inter-burst intervals is confirmed by seizure data recorded in the whole guinea pig brain in vitro and in humans, suggesting that the observed termination pattern may hold across different species. Our results emphasize ionic dynamics as elementary processes behind seizure generation and indicate targets for new therapeutic strategies.
MicroRNAs (miR), as important epigenetic control factors, reportedly regulate wound repair. However, our insufficient knowledge of clinically relevant miRs hinders their potential therapeutic use. For this, we performed paired small and long RNA-sequencing and integrative omics analysis in human tissue samples, including matched skin and acute wounds collected at each healing stage and chronic nonhealing venous ulcers (VUs). On the basis of the findings, we developed a compendium (https://www.xulandenlab.com/humanwounds-mirna-mrna), which will be an open, comprehensive resource to broadly aid wound healing research. With this first clinical, wound-centric resource of miRs and mRNAs, we identified 17 pathologically relevant miRs that exhibited abnormal VU expression and displayed their targets enriched explicitly in the VU gene signature. Intermeshing regulatory networks controlled by these miRs revealed their high cooperativity in contributing to chronic wound pathology characterized by persistent inflammation and proliferative phase initiation failure. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-34a, miR-424, and miR-516, upregulated in VU, cooperatively suppressed keratinocyte migration and growth while promoting inflammatory response. By combining miR expression patterns with their specific target gene expression context, we identified miRs highly relevant to VU pathology. Our study opens the possibility of developing innovative wound treatment that targets pathologically relevant cooperating miRs to attain higher therapeutic efficacy and specificity.