(A) Phylogenetic tree of the SH3-like domains of CheW, CheA-P5 and ParP-AIF proteins. (B) Structure of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 CheW (PDB 3UR1, [Briegel et al., 2012]). CheW consists of two subdomains (1 and 2) responsible for interaction with subdomains 2 and 1 of the P5 domain of CheA. The junction between the two subdomains consists of branched hydrophobic residues (amino acids highlighted in red) that form a groove where CheW interacts with the MCP signaling domain helix. The corresponding amino acid L209 of ParP-AIF is noted in parentheses. The amino acid (S125) corresponding to the position of W305 in ParP-AIF is highlighted in orange. (C) BACTH experiment assaying interaction between ParP variants carrying amino acid substitutions in the predicted MCP binding pocket and MCP proteins VC1898, VC1868, and VCA0658. (D) BACTH experiment assaying interaction between ParP variants and MCP VC1898, CheA1, and ParC. (E) Schematic depicting ParP’s three interaction interfaces, which enable the protein to interact with MCPs, CheA and ParC. L209 and W305 refer to amino acids important for interaction with MCP-SD and CheA respectively, within the two interaction interfaces of ParP-AIF.