Uncoating of the metastable HIV-1 capsid is a tightly regulated disassembly process required for release of the viral cDNA prior to nuclear import. To understand the intrinsic capsid disassembly pathway and how it can be modulated, we have developed a single-particle fluorescence microscopy method to follow the real-time uncoating kinetics of authentic HIV capsids in vitro immediately after permeabilizing the viral membrane. Opening of the first defect in the lattice is the rate-limiting step of uncoating, which is followed by rapid, catastrophic collapse. The capsid-binding inhibitor PF74 accelerates capsid opening but stabilizes the remaining lattice. In contrast, binding of a polyanion to a conserved arginine cluster in the lattice strongly delays initiation of uncoating but does not prevent subsequent lattice disassembly. Our observations suggest that different stages of uncoating can be controlled independently with the interplay between different capsid-binding regulators likely to determine the overall uncoating kinetics.
- Stuart Turville
- Till Böcking
- Till Böcking
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Wesley I Sundquist, University of Utah School of Medicine, United States
© 2018, Márquez et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Structural and biophysical studies help to follow the disassembly of the HIV-1 capsid in vitro, and reveal the role of a small molecule called IP6 in regulating capsid stability.
Cellular aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by a decline in homeostatic capacity, best described at the molecular level. Physicochemical properties such as pH and macromolecular crowding are essential to all molecular processes in cells and require maintenance. Whether a drift in physicochemical properties contributes to the overall decline of homeostasis in aging is not known. Here we show that the cytosol of yeast cells acidifies modestly in early aging and sharply after senescence. Using a macromolecular crowding sensor optimized for long-term FRET measurements, we show that crowding is rather stable and that the stability of crowding is a stronger predictor for lifespan than the absolute crowding levels. Additionally, in aged cells we observe drastic changes in organellar volume, leading to crowding on the µm scale, which we term organellar crowding. Our measurements provide an initial framework of physicochemical parameters of replicatively aged yeast cells.