ISWI family chromatin remodeling motors use sophisticated autoinhibition mechanisms to control nucleosome sliding. Yet how the different autoinhibitory domains are regulated is not well understood. Here we show that an acidic patch formed by histones H2A and H2B of the nucleosome relieves the autoinhibition imposed by the AutoN and the NegC regions of the human ISWI remodeler SNF2h. Further, by single molecule FRET we show that the acidic patch helps control the distance travelled per translocation event. We propose a model in which the acidic patch activates SNF2h by providing a landing pad for the NegC and AutoN auto-inhibitory domains. Interestingly, the acidic patch also inhibits the INO80 complex, indicating that this substrate feature can regulate remodeling enzymes with substantially different mechanisms. We therefore hypothesize that regulating access to the acidic patch of the nucleosome plays a key role in coordinating the activities of different remodelers in the cell.
Relevant source data is provided in the main and supplemental figures. Crosslinked residue pair identification along with number of spectral counts per identification are reported in Supplemental File 1, as well as in a web resource with links to annotated product ion spectra (see Experimental Methods). Raw mass spectrometry files are available on the Massive server (UCSD). Code used for the analysis of smFRET data can be found at the following link, which is also found in the main text. https://github.com/stephlj/Traces
Unprocessed Mass Spectrometry FilesMSV000082136.
- Stephanie L Johnson
- Nathan Gamarra
- Geeta J Narlikar
- Alma L Burlingame
- Alma L Burlingame
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jerry L Workman, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, United States
© 2018, Gamarra et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. Here we develop CRISPR-engineered mouse lines that enable rapid and highly specific degradation of tagged endogenous proteins in vivo. Most but not all cell types are competent for degradation. By combining ligand titrations with genetic crosses to generate animals with different allelic combinations, we show that degradation kinetics depend upon the dose of the tagged protein, ligand, and the E3 ligase substrate receptor TIR1. Rapid degradation of condensin I and condensin II - two essential regulators of mitotic chromosome structure - revealed that both complexes are individually required for cell division in precursor lymphocytes, but not in their differentiated peripheral lymphocyte derivatives. This generalisable approach provides unprecedented temporal control over the dose of endogenous proteins in mouse models, with implications for studying essential biological pathways and modelling drug activity in mammalian tissues.
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