The early-life intestinal microbiota plays a key role in shaping host immune system development. We found that a single early-life antibiotic course (1PAT) accelerated type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in male NOD mice. The single course had deep and persistent effects on the intestinal microbiome, leading to altered cecal, hepatic, and serum metabolites. The exposure elicited sex-specific effects on chromatin states in the ileum and liver and perturbed ileal gene expression, altering normal maturational patterns. The global signature changes included specific genes controlling both innate and adaptive immunity. Microbiome analysis revealed four taxa each that potentially protect against or accelerate T1D onset, that were linked in a network model to specific differences in ileal gene expression. This simplified animal model reveals multiple potential pathways to understand pathogenesis by which early-life gut microbiome perturbations alter a global suite of intestinal responses, contributing to the accelerated and enhanced T1D development.
RNA-Seq data that support the findings of this study have been deposited in ArrayExpress database (www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) with the accession code E-MTAB-6826 (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-MTAB-6826). 16S rRNA data has been deposited in QIITA (https://qiita.ucsd.edu/) with the identifier 11242 (https://qiita.ucsd.edu/study/description/11242). Ileal NanoString data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) and are accessible through GEO Series accession number, GSE101721 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE10172). Shotgun metagenomics data have been deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/metagenomics/) under the accession number, PRJEB26585 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB26585).Metabolomics data have been deposited at the NIH Common Fund Metabolomics Workbench (www.metabolomicsworkbench.org; doi: 10.21228/M8C39R)
- Martin J Blaser
- Martin J Blaser
- Huilin Li
- John M Denu
- Sandy Ng
- Rachel A Sibley
- Kimberly A Krautkramer
- Martin J Blaser
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (160623) of the New York University Langone Medical Center.
- Lora V Hooper, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2018, Zhang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A dose of antibiotics early in life may increase the risk of type 1 diabetes.
The outcome of infection is dependent on the ability of viruses to manipulate the infected cell to evade immunity, and the ability of the immune response to overcome this evasion. Understanding this process is key to understanding pathogenesis, genetic risk factors, and both natural and vaccine-induced immunity. SARS-CoV-2 antagonises the innate interferon response, but whether it manipulates innate cellular immunity is unclear. An unbiased proteomic analysis determined how cell surface protein expression is altered on SARS-CoV-2-infected lung epithelial cells, showing downregulation of activating NK ligands B7-H6, MICA, ULBP2, and Nectin1, with minimal effects on MHC-I. This occurred at the level of protein synthesis, could be mediated by Nsp1 and Nsp14, and correlated with a reduction in NK cell activation. This identifies a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 host-shutoff antagonises innate immunity. Later in the disease process, strong antibody-dependent NK cell activation (ADNKA) developed. These responses were sustained for at least 6 months in most patients, and led to high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Depletion of spike-specific antibodies confirmed their dominant role in neutralisation, but these antibodies played only a minor role in ADNKA compared to antibodies to other proteins, including ORF3a, Membrane, and Nucleocapsid. In contrast, ADNKA induced following vaccination was focussed solely on spike, was weaker than ADNKA following natural infection, and was not boosted by the second dose. These insights have important implications for understanding disease progression, vaccine efficacy, and vaccine design.