(A) Representative IHC staining of mtDNA-encoded MT-CO1 and nuclear-DNA-encoded/mitochondrially-localized TOM20 of CCPAP, ccRCC tumors and adjacent normal tissues. (B) H-scores of immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the mtDNA-encoded MT-CO1 protein across different subtypes of kidney cancers (pRCC, papillary RCC; chRCC, chromophobe RCC) **, p<0.01, ***, p<0.001, ****, p<0.0001, t-test. (CCPAP, n = 11; ccRCC, n = 7; pRCC, n = 2; chRCC, n = 4; oncocytoma, n = 4) (C) Representative IHC staining of 8-oxo-dG of CCPAP and ccRCC tumors. (D) H-score of IHC staining for 8-oxo-dG across different subtypes of kidney cancers. *, p<0.05, t-test. (CCPAP, n = 14; ccRCC, n = 3; pRCC, n = 3; oncocytoma, n = 2) (E) Representative images showing the CCPAP and ccRCC tumor regions stained with Oil-Red-O, Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS), and PAS diastase (n = 3 for each staining).