The first-wave of transcriptional activation occurs after fertilisation in species-specific patterns. Despite its importance to initial embryonic development, the characteristics of transcription following fertilisation are poorly understood in Aves. Herein, we report detailed insights into the onset of genome activation in chickens. We established that two waves of transcriptional activation occurred after fertilisation and at Eyal-Giladi and Kochav Stage V. We found 1,544 single-nucleotide polymorphisms across 424 transcripts derived from parents in offspring during the early embryonic stages. Surprisingly, only the maternal genome was activated in the zygote, and the paternal genome remained silent until the second-wave, regardless of the presence of a paternal pronucleus or supernumerary sperm in the egg. The identified maternal genes involved in cleavage were replaced by bi-allelic expression. The results demonstrate that only maternal alleles are activated in the chicken zygote upon fertilisation, which could be essential for early embryogenesis and evolutionary outcomes in birds.
Generated WGS of parental chickens has been deposited in BioProject under accession number PRJNA393895 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/?term=PRJNA393895). Generated single hybrid embryonic WTS data has been deposited in GEO under accession number GSE100798 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE100798). Published bulked embryonic WTS data are available under accession number GSE86592 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE86592).
Avian zygote activates only maternal allele to disburden high variation of supernumerary sperms contrary to mammalNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE100798.
Avian zygote activates only maternal allele to disburden high variation of supernumerary sperms contrary to mammalNCBI BioProject, PRJNA393895.
Transcriptional and translational dynamics during maternal-to-zygotic transition in early chicken developmentNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE86592.
The transcriptome of early chicken embryos reveals signaling pathways governing rapid asymmetric cellularization and lineage segregationNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE86592.
- Jae Yong Han
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: The experimental use of chickens was approved by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Seoul National University (SNU-150827-1). The experimental animals were cared for according to a standard management program at the University Animal Farm, Seoul National University, Korea. The procedures for animal management, reproduction and embryo manipulation adhered to the standard operating protocols of our laboratory.
- Claudio D Stern, University College London, United Kingdom
© 2018, Hwang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The organization of neural circuits determines nervous system function. Variability can arise during neural circuit development (e.g. neurite morphology, axon/dendrite position). To ensure robust nervous system function, mechanisms must exist to accommodate variation in neurite positioning during circuit formation. Previously, we developed a model system in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord to conditionally induce positional variability of a proprioceptive sensory axon terminal, and used this model to show that when we altered the presynaptic position of the sensory neuron, its major postsynaptic interneuron partner modified its dendritic arbor to match the presynaptic contact, resulting in functional synaptic input (Sales et al., 2019). Here, we investigate the cellular mechanisms by which the interneuron dendrites detect and match variation in presynaptic partner location and input strength. We manipulate the presynaptic sensory neuron by (a) ablation; (b) silencing or activation; or (c) altering its location in the neuropil. From these experiments we conclude that there are two opposing mechanisms used to establish functional connectivity in the face of presynaptic variability: presynaptic contact stimulates dendrite outgrowth locally, whereas presynaptic activity inhibits postsynaptic dendrite outgrowth globally. These mechanisms are only active during an early larval critical period for structural plasticity. Collectively, our data provide new insights into dendrite development, identifying mechanisms that allow dendrites to flexibly respond to developmental variability in presynaptic location and input strength.
How cellular metabolic state impacts cellular programs is a fundamental, unresolved question. Here we investigated how glycolytic flux impacts embryonic development, using presomitic mesoderm (PSM) patterning as the experimental model. First, we identified fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) as an in vivo sentinel metabolite that mirrors glycolytic flux within PSM cells of post-implantation mouse embryos. We found that medium-supplementation with FBP, but not with other glycolytic metabolites, such as fructose 6-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate, impaired mesoderm segmentation. To genetically manipulate glycolytic flux and FBP levels, we generated a mouse model enabling the conditional overexpression of dominant active, cytoplasmic PFKFB3 (cytoPFKFB3). Overexpression of cytoPFKFB3 indeed led to increased glycolytic flux/FBP levels and caused an impairment of mesoderm segmentation, paralleled by the downregulation of Wnt-signaling, reminiscent of the effects seen upon FBP-supplementation. To probe for mechanisms underlying glycolytic flux-signaling, we performed subcellular proteome analysis and revealed that cytoPFKFB3 overexpression altered subcellular localization of certain proteins, including glycolytic enzymes, in PSM cells. Specifically, we revealed that FBP supplementation caused depletion of Pfkl and Aldoa from the nuclear-soluble fraction. Combined, we propose that FBP functions as a flux-signaling metabolite connecting glycolysis and PSM patterning, potentially through modulating subcellular protein localization.