1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
  2. Computational and Systems Biology
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Genome-wide Estrogen Receptor-α activation is sustained, not cyclical

  1. Andrew N Holding  Is a corresponding author
  2. Amy E Cullen
  3. Florian Markowetz
  1. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
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Cite this article as: eLife 2018;7:e40854 doi: 10.7554/eLife.40854

Abstract

Estrogen Receptor-alpha (ER) drives 75% of breast cancers. Stimulation of the ER by estra-2-diol forms a transcriptionally-active chromatin-bound complex. Previous studies reported that ER binding follows a cyclical pattern. However, most studies have been limited to individual ER target genes and without replicates. Thus, the robustness and generality of ER cycling are not well understood. We present a comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the ER after activation, based on 6 replicates at 10 time-points, using our method for precise quantification of binding, Parallel-Factor ChIP-seq. In contrast to previous studies, we identified a sustained increase in affinity, alongside a class of estra-2-diol independent binding sites. Our results are corroborated by quantitative re-analysis of multiple independent studies. Our new model reconciles the conflicting studies into the ER at the TFF1 promoter and provides a detailed understanding in the context of the ER's role as both the driver and therapeutic target of breast cancer.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Andrew N Holding

    Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    For correspondence
    andrew.holding@cruk.cam.ac.uk
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0002-8459-7048
  2. Amy E Cullen

    Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  3. Florian Markowetz

    Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

Funding

Cancer Research UK (C14303/A17197)

  • Florian Markowetz

Breast Cancer Now (2012NovPR042)

  • Florian Markowetz

Cancer Research UK (C60571/A24631)

  • Andrew N Holding

Cancer Research UK (A19274)

  • Florian Markowetz

Alan Turing Institute (EPSRC grant EP/N510129/129/1)

  • Andrew N Holding

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Maarten van Lohuizen, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Netherlands

Publication history

  1. Received: August 22, 2018
  2. Accepted: November 16, 2018
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: November 20, 2018 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: December 10, 2018 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2018, Holding et al.

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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