A comprehensive description of the phenotypic changes during cellular aging is key towards unraveling its causal forces. Previously, we mapped age-related changes in the proteome and transcriptome changes (Janssens et al., 2015). Here, we use these results and model-based inference to generate a comprehensive account of metabolic changes during the replicative life of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With age, we found decreasing metabolite levels, decreasing growth and substrate uptake rates accompanied by a switch from aerobic fermentation to respiration, with glycerol and acetate production. The identified metabolic fluxes revealed an increase in redox cofactor turnover, likely to combat increased production of reactive oxygen species. The metabolic changes are possibly a result of the age-associated decrease in surface area per cell volume. With metabolism being an important factor of the cellular phenotype, this work complements our recent mapping of the transcriptomic and proteomic changes towards a holistic description of the cellular processes during aging.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Matthias Heinemann
- Vakil Takhaveev
- Matthias Heinemann
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Karsten Weis, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
© 2019, Leupold et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
A developing understanding suggests that spatial compartmentalisation in pancreatic β cells is critical in controlling insulin secretion. To investigate the mechanisms, we have developed live-cell subcellular imaging methods using the mouse organotypic pancreatic slice. We demonstrate that the organotypic pancreatic slice, when compared with isolated islets, preserves intact β-cell structure, and enhances glucose-dependent Ca2+ responses and insulin secretion. Using the slice technique, we have discovered the essential role of local activation of integrins and the downstream component, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), in regulating β cells. Integrins and FAK are exclusively activated at the β-cell capillary interface and using in situ and in vitro models we show their activation both positions presynaptic scaffold proteins, like ELKS and liprin, and regulates glucose-dependent Ca2+ responses and insulin secretion. We conclude that FAK orchestrates the final steps of glucose-dependent insulin secretion within the restricted domain where β-cell contact the islet capillaries.
The proinflammatory alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are among the most abundant proteins in neutrophils and monocytes but are completely silenced after differentiation to macrophages. The molecular mechanisms of the extraordinarily dynamic transcriptional regulation of S100a8 and S100a9 genes, however, are only barely understood. Using an unbiased genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout (KO)-based screening approach in immortalized murine monocytes, we identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ as a central regulator of S100a8 and S100a9 expression. We showed that S100A8/A9 expression and thereby neutrophil recruitment and cytokine release were decreased in C/EBPδ KO mice in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation. S100a8 and S100a9 expression was further controlled by the C/EBPδ antagonists ATF3 and FBXW7. We confirmed the clinical relevance of this regulatory network in subpopulations of human monocytes in a clinical cohort of cardiovascular patients. Moreover, we identified specific C/EBPδ-binding sites within S100a8 and S100a9 promoter regions, and demonstrated that C/EBPδ-dependent JMJD3-mediated demethylation of H3K27me3 is indispensable for their expression. Overall, our work uncovered C/EBPδ as a novel regulator of S100a8 and S100a9 expression. Therefore, C/EBPδ represents a promising target for modulation of inflammatory conditions that are characterized by S100a8 and S100a9 overexpression.